Introduction of Beam
The Beam is the horizontal structural member which is used to resist the loads which are applied laterally to the axis. Beams are generally used to support on one or more points and the effective length of the beam between two ends supports is known as the span of the beam.
In this article, you will get to know the various Types of Beams which are used in the construction of structures.The beam is basically a structural member whose length is more than its width and depth and it is only vertically loaded.
Standard Size of Beams
According to the Indian standards code, the size of the beam for the residential building is 225 mm x 300 mm or 9” x 12”. The minimum size of the Reinforced concrete beam should not be less than 225 mm x 225 mm or 9”x 9”.
Classification of Beams
The beams are mainly classified on various factors which are as follows
- Classification of beams on the basis of end support conditions.
- Simply Supported Beam.
- Continuous Beam.
- Cantilever Beam.
- Fixed Beam.
- Overhanging Beams.
- Double Overhanging Beam.
- Hinged Beam.
- Classification of the beam on the basis of the equilibrium condition.
- Statically Determinate Beams.
- Statically Indeterminate Beams.
- Classification of the beam on the basis of the shape of the cross-section.
- I Beam.
- T Beam.
- C Beam.
- Classification of the beam on the basis of material used.
- Classification of the beam on the basis of casting conditions.
- Classification of the beams on the basis of geometry.
- Straight Beam.
- Curved Beam.
- Tapered Beam.
The detailed classification of the types of beams are as follows.
1. Classification of Beams on the Basis of End Support Conditions.
The Beam on the basis end support conditions are as follows.
1.1. Simply Supported Beam.
The simply supported beam allows the horizontal movement of the beam and this type of beam generally undergoes both shear stress as well as bending moment.
1.2. Continuous Beam.
The beam which is supported on more than two supports is known as a continuous beam. The end supports of the continuous beam may be simply supported or fixed.
The continuous beam is mainly used in the construction of long bridges where the length of the bridges is too long.
1.3 Cantilever Beam.
A cantilever beam is a type of beam whose one end is fixed and free at another end. The cantilever beam is constrained at one end with the other end is extending freely outwards.
When the cantilever beam is loaded the beam transfer the load to its fixed end by the action of bending. The cantilever beam carries the load over the span and undergoes both bending moment and shear stress.
There are various examples of cantilever beam which you have seen in your day-to-day life. The one of the common examples of the cantilever beam is balcony is which are constructed in the buildings. The balcony of the buildings are fixed at one end and freely extends towards the another end.
1.4. Fixed Beam.
The Fixed-beam is a type of beam whose both ends are rigidly fixed in the walls or any other structure. The fixed beam does not allow vertical movement and the rotation of the beam.
The Fixed-beam only undergoes shear stress and there will be no movement are produced at the end of the fixed beam. The fixed beams are generally used in the trusses. A fixed beam cannot be able to rotate at its end.
1.5. Overhanging Beams.
The overhanging beam is the type of beams whose end portion of the beam extends beyond the supports.
The overhanging beams as the properties of both the cantilever beam as well as a simply supported beam. The overhanging Beam is generally used what the construction of shapes or balconies.
1.6. Overhanging Beam on Right Side.
The beam which has an end portion extending beyond supports on the right side it is known as an overhanging beam on the right side.
1.7. Overhanging Beam on Left Side.
The beam which has an end portion extending beyond supports on the left side it is known as an overhanging beam on the left side.
1.8. Double Overhanging Beam.
The beam whose both end portion extends beyond its supports is known as Double overhanging Beam.
2. Classification of the Beam Based on Equilibrium Conditions.
TheBeam Based on Equilibrium Conditions are as follows.
2.1. Statically Determinate Beam
The Beam which can be analyzed with the help of the basic equilibrium condition is known as a statically determinate beam. The support reactions of the beam can be calculated by using the basic equilibrium condition.
The condition of the equilibrium is the summation of all the horizontal forces is equal to zero. The summation of the all vertical forces is zero. The summation of all moments is zero. This is the standard condition which is used while calculating and designing the Beam.
The example of the statically determinate beam is simply supported beam and cantilever beam.
2.2. Statically Indeterminate Beam
The beams which cannot be analyzed with the help of the basic equilibrium condition is known as the statically indeterminate beam.
The end reaction of the statically indeterminate beam are calculated such as strain energy method and virtual work method. The stresses which are produced in the statically indeterminate beam are generally less as compared to the statically determinate beam.
3. Classification of Beam on the Basis of Shape of the Cross Section.
The beams are also classified on the basis of the its shape of the cross-sections.
3.1. I Beam.
This is a type of beam whose cross-section is of I shape. The I-beam has greater moment of inertia due to which it has high resistance to bending and deflection. This type of beam are widely used in the construction because it can sustain more loads.
I section beam are manufactured with the help of Steel and consists of Top Flange, Bottom Flange and Web.
3.2. T Beam.
T beam is a type of beam which cross section is of T-shape. The T beam consists of top flange and web.
3.3. C Beam.
C beam has its cross-section like the alphabet ‘T’ shape that’s why it is known as C Beam.
4. Classification of the Beam on the Basis of Material Used.
The beams are also Classification of the Beam on the Basis of Material Used.
4.1. Timber Beam.
Timber beams are the type of beam which are constructed with the help of wood. Timber beam is a structural element which is used in the construction of both vertical columns as well as beams and roof supports.
Timber beam is a very light weight material as compared to steel beams and concrete beams.
4.2. Steel Beam.
Steel beam is a structural beam which is made up of Steel to support a heavy loads. The Steel beams are constructed in different types of shapes and it has various applications in the construction of buildings. The Steel beams are used in the construction of buildings, workshop, steel roof trusses and bridges etc.
4.3. Concrete Beam.
Concrete beam is a commonly used beam in the construction of structures and buildings. Concrete beam is made up of Reinforced cement concrete. Concrete beams can take high compressive loads.
Concrete beams are generally used to support the loads from the slabs and columns. The Steel reinforcement is used in the concrete beam to increase its tensile strength.
4.4. Composite Beams.
Composite beams are the structural components which are constructed with two different types of material. The two different materials are used in the construction of the composite beam to increase its strength and stiffness so that it can sustain high loads.
5. Classification of the Beam on the Basis of Casting Conditions.
The beams are also Classification of the Beam on the Basis of Casting Conditions.
5.1. Precast Concrete Beams.
The precast concrete beams are also known as cast-in-situ beam which are casted in factory as per the required size and specifications. This type of beams are constructed in plants which is away from the construction site in a controlled environment and ideal conditions.
The precast concrete beams are manufactured in the controlled manner with high precise quality.
5.2. Prestressed Concrete Beams.
Prestressed concrete beams are the type of beam which is substantially prestressed during its production to strengthen it against the tensile forces. In this type of beam, stress is induced during its manufacturing.
5.3. In Situ Casted Beams.
In situ casted beams are the beams that are cast on site. The beams are cast on-site with required formwork.
6. Classification of the Beams on the Basis of Geometry
The beams are also Classification of the Beams on the Basis of Geometry.
6.1. Straight Beam.
Straight beams are the beams whose profile is straight and horizontal. The straight beam has a constant cross-section throughout its length.
6.2. Curved Beam.
The Beam whose profile is of curved shape is known as the curved beam. The centre of gravity of the curved beam always follows a certain curve. The curved beam is used in case the shape of the building is circular.
6.3. Tapered Beam.
The Tapered beam is a type of beam which is wider or thicker at the support and tapered at the end. Generally, cantilever beams are constructed in the tapered shape because the moments are generally applied at the end of the cantilever beam so that the free end of the cantilever beam is kept tapered.