Basic Plumbing System
Plumbing follows the basic laws of nature – gravity-pressure, water seeking its own level.
Knowing this, you can understand its “mysteries” and make dozens of corrections to your home’s plumbing system. You can save time, trouble and money!
Your home’s plumbing system consists of two separate subsystems. One subsystem brings freshwater and the other removes wastewater.
The water entering your home is under pressure. It enters your home under enough pressure to allow it to go up the stairs, in the corners or wherever it is needed.
As water enters your home, it passes through a meter that records the amount you use. The main water for or for the valve is usually located near the meter.
In a plumbing emergency, it is vital that you quickly close the main shut-off valve. Otherwise, when a pipe explodes, it can flood your home in no time.
If the emergency is confined to a sink, bathtub, or toilet, however, you may not want to turn off the entire water supply. Therefore, most equipment must have an individual stop valve.
Color Code for PVC Pipe Line
The mains water is immediately ready for your cold water needs. The supply of hot water, however, requires another step.
A tube carries water from the cold water system to your water heater. From the heater, a hot water line carries the heated water to all devices, sockets, and devices requiring hot water.
A thermostat on the heater maintains the selected temperature, turning the heating elements of the device on and off as needed.
The normal temperature setting for a domestic water heater is between 140 degrees F and 160 degrees F, but 120 degrees F is generally adequate and is also more economical.
Some automatic dishwashers need higher temperature water, although many of them have a water heater that increases the temperature by another 20 degrees F.
Whether your home is on a sewer or septic system, the systems in your home are essentially the same.
Drainage systems do not depend on pressure, like supply systems. Instead, the garbage leaves your home because of the drain pipes, which are all tilted or tilted downwards.
Gravity collects garbage. The sewer line continues this downward flow to a sewage treatment plant or septic tank.
Although the system looks simple, there is much more, including vents, traps, and cleanings. The openings that come out of the roof of your house allow air to enter the sewer pipes.
If there was no air supply through the ventilation openings, the wastewater would not flow properly and the water in the traps would have to be diverted.
Supply and Drainage Subsystems
The supply and drainage subsystems are two separate operations, with no overlap between them. There are bridges between the two, however, and it is the bridges that make the plumbing system worthwhile.
In plumbing jargon, any bridge between supply and drainage systems is an accessory.
Supply and Drainage Subsystems
Bathrooms, sinks, and bathtubs are accessories. In addition, an external tap is an accessory and a washing machine.
Some devices have individual supply shut-off valves, so you don’t have to close the main shut-off to repair them.
It is a good idea to ensure that everyone in the family knows the location of the main shut-off valve in your home and also how to use it. You can mark the main shut-off valve so that anyone can easily find it.
Before starting any plumbing repair, always turn off the water supply to the appliance or the main outlet. Also, check your local plumbing code before adding or changing pipes in your home.
You will learn what is allowed and what is prohibited, and whether or not an owner can do their own work. If you get the green light, you can save a lot of money by doing your own repairs.
Traps are vital components of the drainage system. You can see a trap under each sink. It is the curved or S-shaped section of the pipe under a drain.
The water flows from the basin with enough force to pass through the trap and out the drainpipe, but the water remains in the trap afterward to form a seal that prevents the sewage gas from returning to your home.
All equipment must have a trap. The bathrooms are attached automatically and do not require an additional drain trap.
Bathtubs often have drum traps, not only to form a seal against sewage gas but also to collect hair and dirt in order to prevent clogged drains.
Some kitchen sinks have grease collectors to collect grease that could otherwise cause clogging. Since grease and hair are often the cause of clogging, traps often have cleaning plugs that allow easier access to remove or break any blockage.
As a drainage system involves all these components, it is often called DWV: drainage, drainage, and waste disposal system.
If the water comes out freely and the waste comes out properly, all components of the DWV must be present and in good working order.
Examine the pipes in the basement or crawl under your home to help you better understand the system.
Dia of Pipe for uPVC
Dia of Pipe for PVC
Dia of Pipe for CPVC
It is a good idea to know where the main shut-off valve is in your home if a pipe breaks or leaks.
Typically, this main shut-off valve is located where the main water line enters the house; however, it can be located close to the external water meter.
If you know how to quickly turn off that water source, it could turn a massive flood disaster into a minor inconvenience – and save you money in the process.