What Is Brick Masonry?
It is constructed by placing the bricks in the mortar in an orderly manner to produce solid loads, which withstand excessive loads.
There are a number of types of bricks and mortars that can be used to manufacture brick masonry.
Bonding in brick masonry, which adheres to bricks simultaneously, is constructed by filling the joints between the bricks with suitable mortar.
Special precautions must be practiced since the mortar is mixed and placed as it greatly affects the performance and durability of the masonry structure.
Classification of Bricks Based on Size Modification.
In construction, there are places where a right rectangular shaped brick would not be suitable. It has to be modified.
Such bricks are required in plinths, corners of walls, and coping.
There is a long list of bricks of such a special size. We will discuss the important ones here.
1. Squint Brick:
They are cut at a corner at an angle of more than 90 degrees. They are required to shape the outer or inner corner in a wall.
2. Splay Brick:
3. Coping Bricks:
They are used for coping on the walls to give them a good appearance and can also be used for easy drainage of water.
When a coping is to be provided to a wall, a particular shape may be desired. Chuffed, half-round, and saddleback bricks are some common imitating bricks.
4. Bullnose Brick:
Bullnose bricks are used on the sides of the wall to obtain round corners. It is a standard brick with one edge rounded.
5. Cownose Brick:
It is similar to the bullnose, but it has both sides rounded to one side. It can also be called double bullnose bricks. They have the same use as bullnose, but they only give additional roundness.
Also, read: Rate Analysis of Brick Masonry
Types of Bricks
There are almost as many ways of classifying bricks as there are different types of bricks.
But if you classify them based on where they go, you need only remember two: facing bricks and backing bricks.
- Facing bricks are used on the outside of buildings, which means they have to be durable enough to endure rain, storms, and other unfavourable weather conditions.
- Backing bricks, however, are placed behind facing bricks. So, while facing bricks must be at least mildly pleasant to look at, no one cares what backing bricks look like.
If you are talking to someone about the types of bricks used in construction, there is a good chance they will classify the bricks they use based on raw materials. In that case, you should know five basic types.
Different Types of Brick Masonry Work Are Used in the Manufacture of Brick Masonry Including:
- Burnt Clay Bricks
- Concrete Bricks
- Sand Lime Bricks (Calcium Silicate Bricks)
- Fly Ash Clay Bricks
- Engineering Bricks
- Other brick types include bullnose, channel, coping, coves, and hollow brick.
1. Burnt Clay Bricks
- Burnt-clay bricks have good resistance to moisture, insects and erosion and create a good room environment.
- They are medium in cost and have medium-to-high compressive strength.
- Bricks can be made with sophisticated factory methods, simple labour-intensive methods or a range of mechanized technologies in between.
- Burnt clay bricks are made by placing moulded clay into a kiln and firing it up.
- These bricks are kind of like white bread: They are versatile and can be used in a lot of different ways, even if they’re not the most exciting bricks in the world.
- Because they’re so popular and widely used, talking about types of brick masonry without mentioning burnt clay can be a challenge.
- There are four classes of burnt clay brick, with first-class offering the best quality and most strength.
2. Concrete Bricks
- It is made of concrete. It is the least used bricks. It has low compression strength and is of low quality.
- Concrete brick is a mixture of cement and aggregate, usually, sand, formed in moulds and cured.
- Concrete pipe is made of cement, aggregate and cured as above.
- These bricks are used above and below the damp proof course.
- These bricks are used can be used for facades, fences, and internal brick-works because of their sound reductions and heat resistance qualities. It is also called mortar brick.
3. Sand Lime Bricks
- These are a mix of sand, lime, and fly ash. The materials are bonded through a chemical reaction that takes place in the middle of wet mixing.
- If you are looking for a brick that can carry its own weight, try these. They are famous for their stellar load-bearing capacity.
4. Fly Ash Clay Bricks
- Fly ash clay bricks are manufactured with clay and fly ash, at about 1,000 degrees C.
- Some studies have shown that these bricks tend to fail poor produce pop-outs, when bricks come into contact with moisture and water, causing the bricks to expand.
5. Engineering Bricks
- Engineering bricks are bricks manufactured at extremely high temperatures, forming a dense and strong brick, allowing the brick to limit strength and water absorption.
- Engineering bricks offer excellent load bearing capacity damp-proof characteristics and chemical resisting properties.
6. Special Types of Bricks
Ordinary building bricks are generally rectangular in shape, solid in structure and made of suitable types of brick-clay.
In building construction, however, modified shapes, bricks of porous or hollow structures, and materials other than clay are also sometimes used.
A familiarity with this particular classification of bricks is quite important for a construction engineer and an architect. We will discuss them below.
Brick Masonry Work Tools
Materials and Equipment Used in Building Brick Masonry
- Mortar Mix or Mason Mix Brix
- Tape Measure
- Hose, Level, or Theodolite
- Travel Level
- And other equipment according to the project and personal preferences
Types of Brick Mortar Material
Brickwork in Mud
- Clay is used to filling various joints brick masonry work.
- Mortar joint thickness is 12 mm.
- Employed for the construction of walls with a maximum height of 4 meters.
- A mudbrick or mud–brick is an air-dried brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or straw.
- Mudbricks are known from 9000 BCE, though since 4000 BC, bricks have also been fired, to increase their strength and durability.
Brickwork in Cement
- This type of brick is construction done by laying bricks in cement mortar instead of masonry clay used in brickwork in clay.
- There are three major classes of brickwork in cement which are summarized in the table.
- Quantity of cement, Sand or Mortar Required for Brickwork 1:n ratio of cement mortar is usually used for brickwork.
- After adding water to the mortar mix, it bulks and reduces the volume by 33% during the wet condition. In order to calculate the dry volume of cement & sand or Brick mortar add 33% of extra volume to it.
Types of Brick Bond
There Are Various Types of Bonds Commonly Used in Brick Masonry.
- Stretcher Bond
- Header bond
- English bond
- Flemish Bond
This bond is sometimes referred to as a walking bond. This bond is the simplest bond that is used today, this bond is not suitable as a stand-alone structural wall and a structural wall is formed directly behind it, fixed with wall ties.
Stretcher bonds are typically used as a facade for the main structural building. It may look very plain, but very effective with the introduction of other patterns.
Often this bond is used in garden walls, but when considering landscaping you should look for other attractive bonds such as English bonds or Flemish bonds.
The header is the short face of the brick as seen in height. In a standard brick, it has a 90 mm × 90 mm face.
In header bond brick masonry all bricks are arranged in header courses as shown in the above fig This type of bond is useful for building a brick thick walls.
English bond brickwork is where bricks are placed in alternating layers of headers and stretchers.
The traditional way of laying the course is often replaced by 1 course of headers, then 3–5–7 courses between stretch courses, referred to as garden wall bonds.
Like the Flemish bond, it can be a very difficult bond to get right and will take a lot of practice.
These are alternative bricks that have been placed as headers and stretchers in every course. Each header is placed up and down immediately in the middle of the stretcher to maintain it evenly.
Flemish bonds, like others Bond, are rarely used on new modern buildings and are more suited to garden walls and feature structures. This can be a very difficult bond to get hold of because it requires great attention to detail.