Introduction for Tests on Brick
As a civil engineer, you should know the various tests on bricks which are used to check the quality of bricks. In this article, we will go through the various tests on bricks.
Bricks are artificially constructed with the help of clay. It is very important that bricks should go through various tests to know it’s suitability in the construction work. There are basically two types of tests are conducted on the bricks which are the laboratory tests and field Tests.
The Laboratory Tests are those which are carried out in the lab with the help of various instruments and types of machinery. A detailed report is made on the tests which are carried out in the laboratory.
Field Tests also play an important role which is very helpful to check the bricks quality present on the site. The one the best part of the field test on the bricks that it gives faster results.
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Tests on Brick
Here, two different parts divided the brick test. One part lab test on bricks and the second part consider a field test on bricks.
- Laboratory Tests on Brick.
- Water Absorption Test on Brick.
- Crushing Strength Test on Brick.
- Efflorescence Test on Brick.
- Dimensional Stability Test on Brick.
- Field Tests on Brick.
- Hardness Test on Brick.
- Soundness Test on Brick.
- Impact Test on Brick.
- Shape and size Test on Brick.
- Structure Test on Brick.
All types of tests on brick full detail and specification are as follows.
1. Laboratory Tests on Brick.
Inside lab test on brick, various types of test on bricks like Water absorption test, crushing strength test, efflorescence test, and dimensional stability test.
1.1. Water Absorption Test on Brick.
The water absorption test on bricks is the measure of the quantity of water that is absorbed by the bricks when it is immersed in water. In the water absorption test, the brick is weighed at room temperature when bricks are completely dry.
Let its weight be W. The bricks are soaked in water for 24 hours at room temperature and then weighed. Let its Weight be W1
The percentage of water absorption of bricks = (W1 – W)/ W x 100
As per Indian standards, the amount of water that is absorbed by the bricks should not be more than 20% of its Dry weight.
As per IS: 1077 and 1237 the water absorption for various grades of bricks are as follows
- Class 1 Brick: The water absorption for class 1 brick should not be more than 20% of its Dry weight.
- Class 2 Brick: The water absorption for class 2 brick should not be greater than 22% of its Dry weight.
- Class 3 Brick: The water absorption for class 3 brick should not be more than 25% of its Dry weight.
1.2. Crushing Strength Test on Brick.
The crushing strength of brick is determined by using a compression testing machine in the laboratory. The bricks are pressed under the compression testing machine till It Breaks or just on the point of crushing.
The all the values of the readings at the point of crushing or note down indicates the crushing strength of the bricks. The minimum compressive strength of brick is 5 N/mm2.
The grade A brick for the 1st class brief have the crushing strength value ranges between 7 to 14 N/mm2.
1.3. Efflorescence Test on Brick.
In the Efflorescence test the presence of soluble salts is determined. It is very necessary to identify the soluble salts present in the bricks because it will cause efflorescence on the surface of the bricks.
In this test, the brick is soaked or immersed in water for 24 hours and then taken out and allowed to dry completely. After the bricks are completely dry the proper observation of the bricks is done.
If there is no grey or white deposit is present on the surface of the bricks then it indicates the absence of soluble salts. If there is any white deposit is present on the surface of the brick, then there will be efflorescence and it is necessary that brick should be treated before used in construction.
There are various results are analysed and the bricks are classified are as follows according to the area of bricks affected by efflorescence. When 10% of the exposed area of the bricks is covered with a thin deposit of salt then the difference is in Slight
When there is a heavy deposit of salt that covers upto 50% of the area of the brick surface then the Efflorescence will be in moderate. When the exposed surface of the brick is more than 50% affected by the heavy deposit of salt, then the bricks are in the Heavy Efflorescence condition.
If there is a heavy deposit of salt is present on the surface of the brick or there is flaking of the exposed surface then the bricks are in the Serious Efflorescence condition.
1.4. Dimensional Stability Test on Brick.
In the dimensional stability test, the bricks are wetted, there is a change in volume and linear dimension. The resistance to change of volume is called Dimensional
The bricks are saturated with water indicates 0.02% linear expansion which is normal. The bricks which undergo more linear expansion are not good for construction work and it indicates that they are under burnt. Bricks should also show dimensional stability when they are heated.
2. Field Tests on Brick.
Field Tests are also one of the most important which are carried out on-site during the construction. The Field test is very helpful in determining the quality of bricks on the site.
2.1. Hardness Test on Brick.
The hardness test of bricks is used to determine the resistance of bricks to abrasion. In the hardness test of the bricks or scratches made on the exposed surface of the brick by a fingernail.
After making scratches on the surface of the bricks, if there is any impression is left on the brick, then the brick is not sufficiently hard to wear. There should not be any impression left on the brick after scratching it with nails.
2.2. Soundness Test on Brick.
The soundness test is also one of the most important tests which are commonly used to check the quality of the bricks on the construction site. The soundness test is one of the simple and easy tests which anyone can do on the site.
In the soundness test, the two bricks are struck with each other. The brick should not break while it was struck with each other but it should you a metallic ringing sound. The metallic ringing sound of the bricks indicates the good quality of the bricks.
2.3. Impact Test on Brick.
In the impact test of the bricks, the brick is allowed to drop flat from a height of 1 meter on the ground. After dropping the brick on the ground it should not break your crush into pieces.
If the brick gets cracked or crushed into pieces then, it indicates the best quality of the brick.
2.4. Shape and Size Test on Brick.
The shape and size of the brick should be uniform and standard size. The shape of the standard brick should be rectangular. The bricks should have uniform colour and their edges should be straight.
Check whether the bricks should be well burnt. The bricks should have a copper colour or reddish colour and it should be free from cracks and should have sharp edges. This all the above characteristics shows that the brick is of good quality.
2.5. Structure Tests of Brick.
The structure of the brick should be compact, homogeneous, and free from holes and lumps. The bricks should not be broken. It is necessary that you should observe the overall structure of the bricks so that you can understand the condition and the quality of the bricks.