Information of Building Materials
Building materials play a crucial role in civil engineering. The strength and the durability of the structure totally depend upon the type and the quality of the building material that is used in the construction. The building materials should have the ability to sustain high loads and stresses.
Nowadays there are various advanced building materials are also available in the market which is widely used for various construction purpose.
In this article, you will get to know the different types of building materials used in construction for various purposes.
Types of Building Materials Used in Construction
Classification of Building Materials
The building materials are classified into five types according to their uses that are as follows.
- Natural building materials
- Artificial building materials
- Special building materials
- Recycled building materials
- Finishing building materials
1. Natural Building Materials
The materials that are occurring naturally in the environment are known as natural building materials. Natural building materials include sand, clays, gravels, rocks, minerals, metals, and ceramics, etc. These materials are formed in nature due to natural growth.
Rocks are basically the units that formed at the crust of the earth. The rocks are widely used in the construction of structures in the olden days. The Rock structures have high compressive strength and are more durable than concrete structures.
All the construction in ancient times was done with the help of rocks. The Egyptian civilization like pyramids that was totally constructed with rocks. Rocks are very dense building materials and can carry heavy loads. Mortar is used to hold stones with each other.
1.2. Clay and Mud
Mud and clay are still used in the construction of different styles of structures. It allows constructing the structures with flexible designs. The clay and mud have a high thermal mass due to which it tends to be cool during the summer and warm in the winter. The clay and mud help to keep the temperature at a constant level.
1.3. Natural Sand
Sand is obtained from the bed of the river which is formed by the decomposition of the sandstones due to the weathering effects. Sand is used in the manufacturing of mortar and concrete which increases the volume in the mix and fills the voids and makes it economical. According to the Indian standard, the sand passing through the 4.75mm sieve is considered Fine sand.
Timber is a product of the trees and is widely used in construction. It is used in the doors and windows and making furniture. Timber is used as a centering material or formwork material in the construction of Reinforced concrete structures. It is also used as a roofing material and for scaffolding works. In the olden days, timber is used in the sleepers of the railways.
2. Artificial Building Materials
Concrete is mainly used to take the compressive as it is good in compression and weak in tension. The tensile strength of the concrete is increased by reinforcing steel bars in the concrete that’s why it is known as the Reinforced cement concrete. The concrete used in the casting of slabs, beams, and columns, etc.
There are various types of bricks are available in the market according to their compressive strength. The bricks offer a variety of natural colors and textures that will help to enhance the appearance of the structure.
Steels are also used in the construction of steel structures. Steels are available in different forms so that they can be used in different types of construction works. It has resistance to corrosion and high strength and durability.
2.4. Artificial Sand
Artificial sand is also known as crushed sand and mechanical sand which is manufactured by mechanical crushing. Nowadays because of the shortage of river sand, artificial sand is a good replacement for river sand. Artificial sand is used in the manufacturing of mortar and concrete.
Glass is an amorphous and non-crystalline material which is widely used in the window panels and for various architectural purpose. Glass is also used for internal partitions and for various decorative purposes. It is also used as a transparent glazing material. It helps to improve the aesthetics of the building.
3. Special Building Materials
3.1. PVC (Poly-vinyl chloride)
PVC is Polyvinyl chloride and it is very cheap and easy to assemble. The PVC building materials have good water resistance and also fire resistance. It is also used in the manufacturing of water pipes. PVC is also used in tubing, flooring, and roofing membranes. It has excellent insulation properties.
3.2. Polypropylene Fibers
The polypropylene fibers are used in the special type of concrete as a replacement for the reinforcement. The addition of polypropylene fibers increases the tensile strength of the concrete with compressive strength.
3.3. Emulsion and Pastes
Emulsions and bitumen’s are prepared by making a dispersion of the bitumen or tar in appropriate quantity in water in which the emulsion stabilizers such as the oleic acid and acidal are added. Emulsions are specially used for providing the waterproofing coating. The bitumen pastes are used to coat the surface and make it water-resistant.
4. Recycled Building Materials
Timbercreek is a blend of the sawmill, sand, cement, and binder in the appropriate proportion. It can be molded into the blocks to make bricks, blocks, and panels, etc. These molds are available in various shapes, sizes, colors, and textures.
5. Finishing Building Materials
5.1. Lime Plaster
Paints are one of the most important finishing materials on the surface which provides protection from corrosion. Paints are the thick fluid material that is applied on the surface of the metalwork, woodwork.
Paints are available in different colors which will help to improve the aesthetical property.
5.4. POP ( Plaster of Paris)
When the water is added to the powder it sets immediately. The plaster of Paris is widely used for plastering work. POP also provides a very smooth finish with sharp edges and corners. This plaster is used for interior works, not for external surfaces.
Selection of the Building Materials
One of the most challenging tasks for a Civil engineer is to select the appropriate building material for construction work. The selection of the building material is very important and it affects the strength and durability of the structure.
The Building Material should have high load-bearing capacity, pleasing and good serviceability, and also economical so that it can be used in any construction project. Various factors affect the selection of the building material
Factors Affecting the Selection of the Building Material
- Strength of the material
- The durability of the material
- Load bearing capacity
- Cost of material
- Appearance of the material
1. Strength of the Material
The strength of the building material is a maximum load-bearing capacity of material up to which it can carry the load without any failure. The material should have sufficient strength so that it can carry tensile, compressive, bending loads. For example, the concrete should have high compressive strength and the steel should have high tensile strength.
2. The Durability of the Material
The material should be capable to sustain the high-intensity loads for a longer period and resist the environmental impact.
3. Load Bearing Capacity
4. Cost of Material
The cost of the material is the important factor that affects the selection of the material. The building material should be economical so that it can be used in a larger quantity without affecting the overall cost of the project.
Before selection of the building material, do some market survey and analyze the different types of building materials and their cost and choose the material which is available in the ample quantity in that area so it can be easily available at a reasonable rate.
Nowadays the construction is contributing to a large amount of pollution in the environment due to which the eco-friendly buildings materials have great demand in the market. The material should be selected in such a way that it should not affects our ecosystem.
Eco-friendly materials are the type of materials that do not cause any harm to the environment and that can be reused for different purposes.
6. Appearance of the Material
The appearance or aesthetics is also important criteria that should be considered while the selection of the building material. The material should have a smooth finish and color which makes the structures aesthetically pleasing.
The building material should fulfill all the service requirements such as dimensional stability, strength, toughness, heat resistance, corrosion resistance, fatigue and creep resistance, etc. The material should be selected such that it will provide optimum serviceability.