How Cement is Made | Cement Ingredients | History of Cement 

How Cement is Made

How Cement is Made

This Portland cement is a fundamental component of concrete. Concrete is produced when portland cement makes a paste with water that joint with rock and sand to harden.

Cement is manufactured through a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminium, iron and other ingredients.

Common materials used to manufacture cement include limestone, shells, and chalk or marl combined with shale, clay, slate, blast furnace slag, silica sand, and iron ore.

When These ingredients, heated at high heat, form a rock-like substance that is floor into the fine powder that we usually consider as cement.


Cement Ingredient

Cement is manufactured through a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminiumiron and other ingredients. Common materials used to manufacture cement include limestone, shells, and chalk or marl combined with shale, clay, slate, blast furnace slagsilica sand, and iron ore.

Also, read: What Is Cement | Type of Cement

Cement Ingredients

Various Types of cement ingredients and their work areas are given below,

  1. Silicon Dioxide (Silica)
  2. Calcium Oxide (Lime)
  3. Calcium Sulphate 
  4. Aluminum Oxide (Alumina)
  5. Alkalis
  6. Iron Oxide
  7. Magnesium Oxide
  8. Sulfate

1. Silicon dioxide (Silica):



  • It is also a major vital ingredient of cement.
  • It is familiar to silica.
  • It clutches 19-23% of cement mass.
  • It is chemically articulated by SiO2.
  • Function: The purpose of silica is also to give strength to cement.

2. Calcium Oxide (Lime):



This is the main content of the cement manufacturing process or at the top of the list of the main ingredient of cement.

Calcium Oxide has 61% to 67% of the mass of cement, which is holding the highest percentage among all others.

Shortly it has known CaO. Generally, the calcium Oxide familiars as lime.

The function of this: It gave cement sound and provided inner boding strength to cement.

Also, read: What Is Rebar | Why use Reinforcement in Concrete | Types of Steel Reinforcement Bars

3. Calcium Sulphate:

Calcium Sulphate

CaSO4 is chemically composed of it. This Fixing is in the form of gypsum, and its function is to increase the initial setting time of cement.

Function: It assists in raising the initial setting time of cement.

4. Aluminium oxide (Alumina):


Aluminum oxide

  • It is a known alumina. The chemical name is AI2O3.
  • Cement contains its 2% – 6% alumina of its mass.
  • This ingredient imparts quick functioning correctly to cement.
  • Express alumina weakens the cement.
  • Function: It works on a quick-setting property to cement.

5. Alkalis:



The majority of the alkalies within raw material are carried away from the flue gases through heating, and only a small quantity will be abandoned.

If they’re in excess in cement, efflorescence is caused.

A very little quantity of it may present in the cement.

Also, read: What Is Specific Gravity Cement | Why We Calculate Specific Gravity Cement | Specific Gravity Test on Cement

6. Iron Oxide: Iron Oxide

Iron Oxide

  • It is also known as Ferric Oxide.
  • Cement has 0.5%-6% iron oxide of its mass.
  • Iron Oxide’s chemical name is Fe2O3.
  • Function: It has to prove color and hardness to cement.
  • It also gave enough strength to cement.

7. Magnesium Oxide:


Magnesium Oxide

 Magnesium Oxide is articulated by MgO. It provides color and hardness to cement.

8. Sulfate:



  • It is familiar to Sulphur.
  • It clutches 1.5%-4% of the mass of cement.
  • The chemical name of Sulphur is S.
  • Function: A very little quantity of Sulphur in the cement makes it (Cement) sound.

Also, read: Difference Between OPC Vs PPC | What is Cement | OPC Cement | PPC Cement

History of Cement 

Bricklayer of cement Mr.Joseph Aspdin of Leeds from England first made portland cement near the beginning in the 19th century by burning powdered limestone and clay in his personal kitchen stove.

By this crude technique, he had laid the groundwork for an industry that annually processes mountains of limestone, cement rock, clay, and other materials factually into a powder so fine it will go by a sieve able of holding water.

The cement plant laboratories check each move in the manufacture of portland cement by frequent chemical and physical tests.

The labs also analyze and test the completed product to ensure that it complies with all industry stipulation on all weather conditions.

Manufacturer of cement

Manufacturer of cement

The most familiar way to manufacture portland cement is through a dry process. The primary step is to dig up the principal raw materials, chiefly limestone, clay, and extra materials.

After digging up the rock is crushed. This involves various stages. In the initial first stage, crushing reduces the rock to a maximum size of about 6 inches.

The rock then moves toward secondary crushers machine or hammer mills for a decrease to about 3 inches or lesser.

The crushed rock is amalgamated with other ingredients such as iron ore, fly ash, and ground, mixed, and fed to the cement kiln.

The cement kiln gave heats to all the ingredients around about 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit in enormous cylindrical steel rotary kilns lined with special firebrick.

Kilns are normally as much as 12 feet in diameter—large enough to put up an automobile and longer in many instances than the top height of a 40-story building. The large kilns are mounted with the axis inclined from the horizontal.

The finely grinded raw material or slurry is fed into the higher end. On the other hand,the lower end is a roaring blast of flame, produced by specifically controlled burning of the contains like powdered coal, oil, alternative fuels, gas under forced draft.

When the material moves through the kiln, certain elements are driven off in the form of gases. The remaining elements after burning bond to form a new substance known as clinker.

The Clinker comes out of the kiln as grey balls, its size about of marbles.

The Clinker is released red-hot from the lower base end of the kiln, and usually, it is brought down to managing temperature in diverse types of coolers.

The heated air from the coolers comes back to the kilns, a method that saves fuel and increases burning efficiency.

Afterward, the clinker is cooled, and cement plants grind it where it mixes with small amounts of limestone and gypsum. Cement is too fine, for example,1 pound of cement contains 150 billion grains.

Finally, the cement is ready for transport to ready-mix concrete companies to be habitual in a multiplicity of construction projects.

At the end of this process, the dry process is the most contemporary and prominent way to produce cement, some kilns in the United States apply a wet process.

These two methods are basically alike except in the wet process. The basic materials are ground with water before being fed into the kiln.


Ingredients to Make Cement

Cement is manufactured through a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminumiron and other ingredients. Common materials used to manufacture cement include limestone, shells, and chalk or marl combined with shale, clay, slate, blast furnace slag, silica sand, and iron ore.

Who Is Father of Cement?

Ben Dalton via Wiki A plaque in Leeds, England proclaims Joseph Aspdin as the father of portland cement. A plaque in the English industrial city of Leeds proudly proclaims a son of the city, bricklayer Joseph Aspdin, as the inventor of Portland cement.

What Is the Raw Material of Cement?

The most important raw materials for making cement are limestone, clay, and marl. These are extracted from quarries by blasting or by ripping using heavy machinery.

What Are the Ingredients of Cement?

Cement is manufactured through a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron and other ingredients. Common materials used to manufacture cement include limestone, shells, and chalk or marl combined with shale, clay, slate, blast furnace slag, silica sand, and iron ore.

Who Invented Cement?

Cement as we know it was first developed by Joseph Aspdin, an enterprising 19th-century British stonemason, who heated a mix of ground limestone and clay in his kitchen stove, then pulverized the concoction into a fine powder. The result was the world’s first hydraulic cement: one that hardens when water is added.

What Are the Ingredients of Cement in One Sentence?

As described in it, cement is a powdery substance made with calcined lime and clay as major ingredients. Clay used provides silica, alumina, and iron oxide, while calcined lime basically provides calcium oxide.

How Is Cement Formed in Nature?

But cement isn’t some sort of naturally occurring organic material – it’s manufactured through the chemical combination of 8 main ingredients during the cement production process. These ingredients are generally extracted from limestone, clay, marl, shale, chalk, sand, bauxite, and iron ore.

Can You Make Cement at Home?

Cement is a powdery, dry substance that makes concrete when it’s mixed with water, gravel, and sand. Instead of buying a bagged mix, you can try making your own cement by obtaining and burning limestone.

What Are the Types of Cement?

  • Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC).
  • Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC).
  • Rapid Hardening Cement.
  • Extra Rapid Hardening Cement.
  • Low Heat Cement.
  • Sulfates Resisting Cement.
  • Quick Setting Cement.
  • Blast Furnace Slag Cement.

Why Clinker Is Used in Cement?

Gypsum added to and ground with clinker regulates the setting time and gives the most important property of cement, compressive strength. It also prevents agglomeration and coating of the powder at the surface of balls and mill wall.

What Was Used Before Cement?

Early cementicious composite materials typically included mortar-crushed, burned limestone, sand and water, which was used for building with stone, as opposed to casting the material in a mold, which is essentially how modern concrete is used, with the mold being the concrete forms.

Why Silica Is Used in Cement?

Silica fume is an excellent admixture for concrete as it leads to better engineering properties. It will reduce thermal cracking caused by the heat of cement hydration, improve durability to attack by sulphate and acidic waters, and increase strength.

What Can I Use Instead of Cement?

  • Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), aka ‘Fly ash’ as a cement substitute.
  • Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS) as a cement substitute.
  • Silica fume.
  • Limestone fines.
  • Alternative fuels.

What Is the Alternative to Cement?

Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), aka ‘Fly ash’ as a cement substitute. PFA is a by-product of coal-burning power stations. As part of the combustion process, coal is pulverised into a powder before being burned. About 18% of the fuel forms fine glass spheres, about 75% of which rise with the flue gases from the combustion.

Which Is No 1 Cement in World?

China produces the most cement globally by a large margin, at an estimated 2.2 billion metric tons in 2020, followed by India at 340 million metric tons in the same year.

Which Is the No 1 Cement in India?

Ultra tech Cement is India No 1 Cement.

Where Is Cement Found?

Common materials used to manufacture cement include limestone, shells, and chalk or marl combined with shale, clay, slate, blast furnace slag, silica sand, and iron ore.

How Many Type of Cement Do We Have?

Cement is a versatile and complex structure with interchangeable compounds and properties. There are six different types of cement with specific defining behaviors and chemical compositions. Below we look at each type and what makes them unique.

What Is the Is Code of Cement?

For 53 grade cement, IS code used to be IS 12269. All cement bags having 53 grade cement carried IS 12269 mark. In 2015, IS code for OPC has been revised and all grades of cement have been included in one IS code only.

Is Silica a Cement?

Limestone, clay and sand are commonly used in making portland cement. … In their raw form, these materials contain varying amounts of silicon dioxide. But when they’re blended and heated to high temperatures in the cement kiln, the resulting clinker contains new compounds.

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