Difference Between Footing and Foundation | What is Footing and Foundation

What is Footing?

Foundation Definition: The footing is generally supporting columns and may be round, square, or rectangular at a plan and in section.

They may be of the slab — stepped or sloping type. Thia stepped footing results at a better distribution of load than a slab footing.

A sloped footing isn’t less economical, although constructional problems are associated with this sloping surface.

The isolated spread footing at plain concrete has the advantage that the column had is transferred to the soil through dispersion at the footing.

Foundation detail: In reinforced concrete footings. i.e., pads. This slab is treated as an inverted cantilever bearing this soil pressure and supported by the column.

Where a two-way footing is provided, it can be reinforced at two directions of bending with bars of steel placed in this bottom of the pad parallel to its sides.

If clearances permit, two-way square footings used to reduce the bending moments. Where not less than one column is placed on pads (combined footing).

Their shapes can be rectangular or trapezoidal; the latter produces a more economical design where large differences of the magnitude of the column loads exist or where rectangular footings cannot be accommodated.

This gives pad-type/ combined footings and their behavior under external loads and bearing pressures: typical reinforcement detailing for two different combined footings in sectional elevations and plan.

The specifications and quantities can change depending on the column loads and the spread area.

Also, read: What Is Raft Foundation | Type of Footing | Detail of Raft Footing

Types of footing

      • Isolated Footing:
      • Combined Footing:
      • Continuous Wall Footing:
      • Strap Footing:
      • Strip Footing:
      • Raft Footing:
      • Pile Footing:
      • Spread footing

Also, read: Difference Between Lap Length and Development Length

What is Foundation?

Define Footings:  Foundation Engineering is a subject built on the basic principles of Soil Mechanics, Soil Hydraulics, and Structural Mechanics.

All these three together may be considered as the pillars of Foundation Engineering.

A wrong application of the principles of any one of the three subjects may lead to a faulty design of the foundation.

Theories have been developed for the design of foundations to suit ideal soil conditions.

However, such conditions rarely exist in nature since soils found in natural conditions are mostly heterogeneous in character.

Theories can have to be modified or adjusted to suit field conditions.

A foundation is a part of a superstructure.

The stresses and strains that are brought to the foundation from the superstructure would lead to interaction between the foundation structural element and the soil surrounding it.

It is this interaction that is very difficult to evaluate, as this is quite a complex phenomenon.

The theories that have been developed for ideal conditions do not take into account all the variables that would lead to the interaction between the soil and the foundation element.

The presence of a water table would make the interaction problem all the more difficult to solve.

It is, therefore, essential that a design engineer should have a thorough knowledge of the theories he wants to use for the design of foundations and also its limitations.

Knowledge of the theories and its limitations by themselves will not lead to the design of a safe and sound foundation if the environmental conditions, the strength and settlement characteristics of the soil are not properly known in advance.

An ideal design engineer, therefore, is the one who has a thorough knowledge of the theories and the field conditions and also who can modify or adjust the design to suit the field conditions.

This requires, therefore, a practical and pragmatic approach to the problem of design and construction while keeping in view the safety and economics of the project.

Also, read: Piling for Foundation | Use of Pile Foundation | Characteristics of Pile Foundation

Types of Foundation

Foundation types

      • Shallow foundation
        • Individual footing or isolated footing
        • Combined footing
        • Strip foundation
        • Raft or mat foundation
      • Deep Foundation
        • Pile foundation
          • End Bearing Pile
          • Friction Pile
        • Drilled Shafts or caissons

Also, read: What Is Guniting, Set Guniting Systems , Advantage, Disadvantage

Difference Between Footing and Foundation

1A formation which is in contact with the ground.A structure which transfers its gravity loads to earth from superstructure.
2A structure which transfers the load from the superstructure to this groundthe foundation which is in contact with the earth.
3This is a provides support to the entire building This provides support to individual columns.
4It analogized with the feet of the leg.It can be analogized with the feet of the leg.
5Foundation are of two types, shallow & deep foundationThis footing is a type of shallow foundation
6This is the basement of the wallThis is under the foundation wall.
7This Footing includes slab, rebar which are fabricated of brickwork, masonry or concrete.Foundation types include piles, caissons, footings, piers, the lateral supports, and anchors.
8Footing reinforces support to an individual column.this is Foundation is extensive support because it gives support to a group of footings as an entire building
9the number of footings repose on a foundation.This Foundation is the support that bears all kinds of loadings.
10This is Footing transmits loads directly to the soil.This is foundation is in direct contact with the soil and transmits it to the ground.
11All foundations can't be footing But all footings are foundations.

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Krunal Rajput: Hey, I am Krunal Rajput. The Man Behind CivilJungle. I started this site to spread knowledge about Civil/Mechanical/Electrical Engineering. I am a Degree Holder in Civil Engineering.