Difference Between M Sand Vs River Sand | What is M-Sand & River Sand

What is M-Sand?


M- Sand full name is Manufacturer Sand.

Sand is one of the important ingredients at making concrete mortar & plaster, etc.

Earth scientists and organizations are now promoting the use of M-Sand(Manufactured Sand).

It is produced by crushing of quarry and rocks stones to desired sizes.

To derive the required sizes, these hard rock deposits are crushed, and this material is segregated in different fractions to suit different construction sites.

The chemical characteristics and strength of M-Sand(Manufactured Sand) are similar to river sand.

M-Sand(Manufactured Sand) as a silt content of around 0.2 percent and water absorption of 1.6 percent, as compared to 0.45 percent and 1.15 percent respectively in river sand

This sand alternative of river sand/natural sand.

M-sand(Manufactured Sand) cheaper sand as per river sand.

Also, read: What Is Bulkage of Sand (Fine Aggregate )

M-Sand Bonding Strength.

M-Sand is manufactured in a three-stage process:


  • Quarry and Rocks stones are crushed at jaw crushers, cone crushers, and vertical shaft impact crushers, respectively leading into the formation of angular and cubical fine aggregate particles.


  • Screening ensures this material is properly graded that’s similar to river sand.


  • Washing removes all the micro-fine particles. Also, fine aggregates for concrete and plaster sand are also formed.

Also, sand: Lab Test on Aggregates at Site

Advantages of M-sand

The major advantage of manufactured sand is that it is highly cohesive and compressive in strength.

It has lesser impurities, which help in producing better quality concrete.

Moreover, the controlled gradation of Zone-II is possible, suitable for concrete.

In some case studies, it was found that concrete produced by using manufactured sand obtained 6-9 %(percent) higher compressive strength and 12-15 %(percent) higher flexural strength compared to river sand of the same grade.

A nearly 30 %(percent) increase in masonry strength is obtained with the use of manufactured sand.

It requires a lower water-cement ratio if the mortar is mixed with manufactured sand, which also results in better characteristics in the hardened state.

Manufacturing sand also eliminates the environmental impact that occurred due to the lifting of natural sand from the river bed.

Also, read: What Is Soundness of Cement Test

Disadvantages of M-sand

Improper crushing of manufacturing sand may lead to angular and flaky particles that are not suitable for concrete production, both technically and economically.

Also, an adequate set up of crusher may not be available in some parts of the county like West Bengal, as it costs higher than river sand.

For high-grade pumpable concrete in high-rise buildings, the requirement of cement is higher than the river sand, which may not be cost-effective.

What is River Sand?

River Sand

It is naturally available and extracted from the river beds or riverbank.

Naturally, river sand easy available in the market, this sand larges use in construction.

The shape of Crushed sand is angular and cubical and has a rough texture and hence, better for concrete.

River sand use of the construction industry is growing with major trust in infrastructure, and the demand for sand is also increasing.

This overuse of river sand for construction has many social consequences and undesirable environmental.

This Sand is used as fine aggregate in mortar concreter, and Natural river sand is this most preferred choice as a fine aggregate material.

This Sand is becoming a scarce commodity now. This sand is far superior for construction purposes than any other sand used in construction.

Also, read: What Is Cement | Type of Cement


Difference Between M Sand and River Sand

Sr.No.M-SandRiver Sand
1M-Sand manufactured in a factory
This naturally available on river banks
1The source of Crushed sand is a quarry. It is manufactured by quarry stones, Crushing rocks, or larger aggregate pieces into sand size particles in a factory or quarry.This is naturally available and extracted from the riverbanks or river beds.
2The shape of Crushed sand is angular and cubical and has a rough texture and hence, better for concrete.The shape of natural sand is rounded and has a smooth surface.
3No moisture content.Moisture is generally present between the particles. Hence, it affects the assumptions of concrete mix design and quality of concrete.
4This sand highly recommended for RCC purposes and brick/block works.River sand is recommended for RCC, plastering and brick/blockwork.
5Particle passing 75 microns: Up to 15% (IS: 383-1970)Particle passing 75 microns: Up to 3% (IS: 383-1970)
6M-sand specific gravity is approximate 2.73 (Depend on parent rock.)River sand specific gravity is approximate 2.65 (Depend on rocks in the catchment area.)
7M-sand dry density of 1.75 kg/m3Naturally Sand dry density of 1.44 kg/m3
8M-sand is manufactured to conform to zone II.this sand mostly conforms to zone II and zone III
9This is less adulteration.this is a high probability of adulteration because of acute shortage. Natural sand adulteration with saline sea sand is common in coastal areas.
10M-sand less damage to the environment as compared to natural sand.This river sand is harmful to the environment. It reduces the groundwater level and rivers water gets dried up.
11M sand price Near About Rs 900/TonRiver sand price Near About Rs 480/Ton

Also, read: What is CBR Test in Civil

Comparison of M-Sand and River Sand

Is SieveM-Sand % Age PassingRiver Sand % Age Passing% Age passing for single
sized aggregates of
Normal Sand 115
383 – 19701 Zone II
4.75 mm99.7599.25100 to 90
2.36 mm78.2593.50
100 to 75
1.18 mm52.0048.0090 to 55
600 microns38.0021.0059 to 35
300 microns21.004.0030 to 08
150 microns 5.000.0510 to 0

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Krunal Rajput: Hey, I am Krunal Rajput. The Man Behind CivilJungle. I started this site to spread knowledge about Civil/Mechanical/Electrical Engineering. I am a Degree Holder in Civil Engineering.