What Is Fine Aggregate | Types of Fine Aggregates (Classification)

What Is Fine Aggregate?

What Is Fine Aggregate?

Fine aggregates are essentially any natural sand particles won from the land through the mining process. Fine aggregates consist of natural sand or any crushed stone particles that are ¼” or smaller. This product is often referred to as 1/4’” minus as it refers to the size, or grading, of this particular aggregate.
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Fine aggregate (Sand) Fills voids between aggregates. It forms the bulk and makes mortar or concrete economical. It provides resistance against shrinking and cracking. It is naturally available.

Fine-Aggregate



Types of Fine Aggregates (Classification)

Fine aggregates are classified as follows:

  • Mode of Origin
  • Composition
  • Grain Size

1. Classification Fing Aggregates According to Mode of Origin:

Here, the fine aggregates for a mode of origin are as follows.

  • Pit Sand.
  • River Sand.
  • Sea Sand.

1.1. Pit Sand-

Pit Sand

They are sharp and angular in outline. Translation and deposition are done by the wind. Such sand accumulation is sometimes covered by clay. It will be desirable to wash and clean this type of sand before use.

1.2. River Sand-

River sand is found in the river bed in-plane area. Grains of river sand is round in shape. This sand is clean and free from salt encrustations. No organic impurities are noticed. This sand is commonly for construction work.

1.3. Sea Sand-

sea-sand

This type of sand is found on beaches and along sea-shore. These sand particles are round in shape. Grains are often found covered with salts that are not easily separated.

These salts, when coming in contact with binding material of mortar or concrete, create problems. Further, these salts encrustations are hygroscopic. They absorb water from the atmosphere and delay setting. They produce dampness and efflorescence.

Hence the type of sand is not preferred. They should be thoroughly washed before use.

Also, read: Difference Between Plasticizer And Superplasticizer in Civil

2. Classification of Fine Aggregates According to Composition:

Here, the fine aggregates for according to composition are as follows.

  • Clean Sand
  • Silty Sand
  • Clayey Sand

2.1. Clean Sand-

Clean Sand

These are well-graded sand containing quartz particles in a wide range of grain sizes.

2.2. Silty Sand-

silty sand

These are poorly graded, having a considerable proportion of silt and other non-plastic fines.

2.3. Clayey Sand-

Caly Sand

There is poorly graded sand that has a prominent clay fraction and also plastic fines.

3. Classification Fine Aggregate According to Grain Size:

Sieve-Analysis

According to this classification sands are classified as under,

Grain Size Type
2 – 1 mm Coarse
1 – 0.25 mm Medium
0.25 – 0.15 mm Fine

Fine Aggregate Size Requirement As Per IS 456

If you remember, I have mentioned the size of the fine aggregate as recommended by IS. Let me recall. The aggregates passing through 4.75 mm sieve and retained on 0.15 mm sieve are called fine aggregates.

Different size of sand is necessary for different works. For sand some times terms like fine sand, medium sand, and coarse sand are use.

It is difficult to distinguish one type of sand from others when such terms are used. It is advisable to express sand in terms of fineness modulus.

According to F.M. sand can be classified as under

Type of Sand Range of Fineness
Fine Sand 2.2 – 2.6
Medium Sand 2.6 -2.9
Coarse Sand 2.9 – 3.2

Sand having a fineness modulus more than 3.2 will not be suitable for making satisfactory concrete. As I have stated earlier considering grain size, types of sand will be as under,

Type of Sand Grain Size
Coarse Sand 2-1 mm
Medium Sand 1 – 0.25 mm
Fine Sand 0.25 – 0.15 mm

Also, read: What Is Superstructures | Difference Between Load-Bearing and Framed Structures

Use of Ine Aggregate for General and Specific Purpose

As per the below type of sand

  • Use of sand for general purposes
  •  Specific Uses of Sand 

Use of Sand for General Purposes

  1. Preparing mortar for masonry work.
  2. Preparing mortar for different types of plastering and paintings.
    • Preparing concrete for a slab, beams, columns, etc.
      1. Filling in trenches
      2. Levelling ground
      3. Foundation Concrete
      4. Floorings
      5. Different types of precast units, tiles, concrete pipes, etc.

Specific Uses of Sand 

Sand can be used for many specific purposes; some important uses are mentioned below.

  • To safeguard foundations in back cotton soil.
  • Filling in breaches of canal banks.
  • Temporary cofferdam
  • Blotting excessive of bitumen from the surface of the road.
  • For playgrounds
  • Moulding works
  • Sand-blasting for cleaning
  • Counter-weights (Sand Bages)

Properties of Fine Aggregate

  1. Size of Fine Aggregates.
  2. Strength.
  3. Shape of Fine Aggregates.
  4. Specific Gravity.
  5. Surface Texture of Fine Aggregates.
  6. Water Absorption.
  7. Surface Index of Fine Aggregates.
  8. Soundness.
  9. Surface Moisture.
  10. Specific Surface of Fine Aggregates.
FAQ

Fine Aggregate:

Aggregate is the granular material used to produce concrete or mortar and when the particles of the granular material are so fine that they pass through a 4.75mm sieve, it is called fine aggregate.

What Is the Size of Fine Aggregates?

The size of fine aggregates is defined as 4.75mm or smaller. That is, aggregates which can be passed through a number 4 sieve, with a mesh size of 4.75mm. Fine aggregates include things such as sand, silt and clay. Crushed stone and crushed gravel might also fall under this category.

Fine Aggregate Definition

Fine aggregates are essentially any natural sand particles won from the land through the mining process. Fine aggregates consist of natural sand or any crushed stone particles that are ¼” or smaller. This product is often referred to as 1/4’” minus as it refers to the size, or grading, of this particular aggregate.

Fine Aggregate Meaning

Fine aggregates are usually sand or crushed stone that are less than 9.55mm in diameter. Typically the most common size of aggregate used in construction is 20mm. A larger size, 40mm, is more common in mass concrete. Larger aggregate diameters reduce the quantity of cement and water needed.

Define Fine Aggregate

Fine aggregates generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone with most particles passing through a 3/8-inch sieve. Coarse aggregates are any particles greater than 0.19 inch, but generally range between 3/8 and 1.5 inches in diameter.

Uses of Fine Aggregate

Fine aggregates are used in projects where a smooth yet highly compacted surface is desired. Fine aggregates are ideal for use underneath pavers, path fines, track fines, athletic infield material and can even be used as a soil amendment.

Which of the Below Can Be Used as Fine Aggregate

Surkhi consists of broken brick pieces. They can be ground to the size of fine aggregates.

What Is Fine Sand?

Sand composed of grains ranging from 0.10 to 0.25 mm in diameter.

What Is Size of Fine Aggregate?

The size of fine aggregates is defined as 4.75mm or smaller. That is, aggregates which can be passed through a number 4 sieve, with a mesh size of 4.75mm. Fine aggregates include things such as sand, silt and clay. Crushed stone and crushed gravel might also fall under this category.

What Are Fine Aggregates?

Fine aggregates generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone with most particles passing through a 3/8-inch sieve. Coarse aggregates are any particles greater than 0.19 inch, but generally range between 3/8 and 1.5 inches in diameter.

Fine Aggregate Definition in Civil Engineering

Fine aggregates generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone with most particles passing through a 3/8-inch sieve. Coarse aggregates are any particles greater than 0.19 inch, but generally range between 3/8 and 1.5 inches in diameter.

How Many Types of Fine Aggregates Are There Based on Source?

Three types are natural sand (river banks), crushed stone sand (hard stone) and crushed gravel sand (gravel).

Aggregate Sand

Sand aggregate is a general term for sand, gravel and other materials in construction projects. It is the main building material for concrete and stone masonry in hydraulic engineering, and it acts as skeleton or filling in concrete.

Definition of Fine Aggregate

Fine aggregates are essentially any natural sand particles won from the land through the mining process. Fine aggregates consist of natural sand or any crushed stone particles that are ¼” or smaller. This product is often referred to as 1/4’” minus as it refers to the size, or grading, of this particular aggregate.

Sand Aggregate

Sand aggregate, also named as aggregate sand, or sand and gravel aggregate, which is a wide category from coarse to medium to fine granula that include sand, gravel, crushed stone and aggregate.

Fine Aggregate in Concrete

Aggregate Materials Help to Make Concrete Mixes More Compact. They Also Decrease the Consumption of Cement and Water and Contribute to the Mechanical Strength of the Concrete, Making Them an Indispensable Ingredient in the Construction and Maintenance of Rigid Structures.

What Is Fine Aggregate in Concrete?

Fine aggregates generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone with most particles passing through a 3/8-inch sieve. Coarse aggregates are any particles greater than 0.19 inch but generally range between 3/8 and 1.5 inches in diameter.

How Many Types of Fine Aggregates Are There Based on Source?

Three types are natural sand (river banks), crushed stone sand (hard stone) and crushed gravel sand (gravel).

Sand Fine Aggregate

Fine aggregates are essentially any natural sand particles won from the land through the mining process. Fine aggregates consist of natural sand or any crushed stone particles that are ¼” or smaller. This product is often referred to as 1/4’” minus as it refers to the size, or grading, of this particular aggregate.

Fine Aggregate Example

Sand, surki, stone screenings, burnt clays, cinders, fly ash, etc are used as fine aggregate in concrete. Brick chips (broken bricks), stone chips (broken stones), gravels, pebbles, clinkers, cinders, etc.

Fine Aggregate Types

Classification according to Source

  • Coral Sand
  • Glass Sand
  • Immature Sand
  • Gypsum Sand
  • Ooid Sand
  • Silica Sand
  • Pit Sand
  • River Sand
  • Sea Sand
  • Green Sand
  • Desert Sand
  • Lithic Sand
  • Mixed Carbonate-silicate Sand
  • Biogenic Sand
  • Garnet Sand
  • Olivine Sand
  • Volcanic Sand
  • Heavy Mineral Sand
  • Sands with Hematitic Pigment
  • Continental Sand
  • Quartz Sand

Sources of Fine Aggregate

River sand or machine sand, crushed stone sand, crushed gravel sand are the major sources of fine aggregate. Dolomite aggregates, crushed gravel or stone, natural disintegration of rock are the major sources of coarse aggregate. The surface area of fine aggregates is higher.

Size of Fine Aggregate Is

The size of fine aggregates is defined as 4.75mm or smaller. That is, aggregates which can be passed through a number 4 sieve, with a mesh size of 4.75mm. Fine aggregates include things such as sand, silt and clay. Crushed stone and crushed gravel might also fall under this category.

Types of Aggregate

The categories of aggregates include gravel, sand, recycled concrete, slag, topsoil, ballast, Type 1 MOT, and geosynthetic aggregates (synthetic products commonly used in civil engineering projects used to stabilise terrain).

Fine Aggregate Uses

Fine aggregates are used in projects where a smooth yet highly compacted surface is desired. Fine aggregates are ideal for use underneath pavers, path fines, track fines, athletic infield material and can even be used as a soil amendment.

Aggregate Is Called Fine Aggregate If

Fine aggregate Size variation
Coarse Sand 2.0mm – 0.5mm
Medium sand 0.5mm – 0.25mm
Fine sand 0.25mm – 0.06mm
Silt 0.06mm – 0.002mm
Clay <0.002

Types of Coarse Aggregate

Coarse aggregate Size
Fine gravel 4mm – 8mm
Medium gravel 8mm – 16mm
Coarse gravel 16mm – 64mm
Cobbles 64mm – 256mm
Boulders >256mm

Fine Aggregate and Coarse Aggregate

Fine aggregates generally consist of natural sand or crushed stone with most particles passing through a 3/8-inch sieve. Coarse aggregates are any particles greater than 0.19 inch, but generally range between 3/8 and 1.5 inches in diameter.

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