What Is Foundation Repair?
1. Sealants & Masonry Patches
Cracks are required to be identified & renovated as early as possible by patching & sheathing with a water-resistant masonry sealer (like hydraulic cement, vinyl chloride, epoxies, silicone, or polyurethane).
The type of blend utilized will be according to severity of cracks. On absorption of water, soil expands & shrinks. This results in movements of foundation leading to cracks which can be checked by watering.
2. Slab Jacking, Mud Jacking, Concrete Lifting, and Slab Leveling
This methodology is utilized to lift up uneven concrete & is ideal for raising porches, steps, decks, walkways, garage floors & driveways. Slab foundations sink or tilt when the soil beneath crumples & leaves vacant spaces below.
It can be again classified under 2 categories.
2.1. Ponderous Mud or Concrete Mixture
Utilized in earlier days. A combination of mud, concrete, water & other additives are stirred by a mixer device with the aid of hydraulic pumps.
The final blend is poured in a portable pump & it is pumped by hoses after drilling 2 holes. As solution expands gradually, the fallen slab is raised back into place.
2.2. Polyurethane Resins
Utilized nowadays. Only the process of inflicting foam (light-weight materials) into the apertures is required. A trailer is formed by 2 fluids which can react to get the foam & it is stored distinctly.
After the apertures are drilled, by injecting gun whose along with the hose (at one end) is inserted into an aperture to pump out the foam. The foam expands upto 25 times by volume & becomes rigid shortly. Comparatively expensive but quick process.
Advantages of Polyurethane Resins
- This method is suitable for tyrannical weather conditions.
- No tincture change in the structure as the new concrete blend is spread beneath the old slab layer.
- It isn’t required to clean up the place as this method doesn’t mess up the place in comparison to the rest.
- The new concrete blend strengthens base for the old one.
- No wastage & sound pollution in comparison to replacement of a new structure. This method is suitable for tyrannical weather conditions.
Disadvantages of Polyurethane Resins
Extensively pumped concrete blend or thin concrete blend may lift the structure upon a wrong place resulting in development of cracks.
3. Pressed Concrete Piling
They are sturdy foundation piers utilized for interior & exterior repairs of the foundation. They perform on pier & beam houses & furthermore as concrete slab foundations. Properly installed pressed concrete piers are set up (nearly 12 feet deep) to achieve stability.
3.1. Concrete Piers
Formed by pouring liquid concrete into apertures bored in the ground.
The installation process is given subsequently:-
- In a location where a pier needs to be set up, an aperture (Depth-12-20 feet & Diameter-12 inches) is bored down to the target depth.
- Reinforcing steel bars are fastened together & are lowered down to the aperture.
- Concrete solidifies in 7 days & hydraulic jacks are utilized to pull up the foundation.
- Just after that, steel & concrete spacers are fixed on the piers to hold up foundation & the hydraulic jacks are detached.
- Final step- hide the piers.
3.2. Concrete Pilings
The installation process is given subsequently:
- In each location where a pilling is required to be installed, an aperture (Depth-2 feet & Diameter- Doormat) is dug adjacent to the foundation.
- A concrete cylinder is set up at the bottom of the aperture & beneath the foundation.
- High power hydraulic ram is then set up on loft of the cylinder & hence top of the ram gets in contact with the underside of the foundation.
- Ram activates & is utilized to get in contact with the cylinder deep down to the bottom.
- A cylinder is pushed at the bottom, then, another cylinder is fixed above the primary cylinder & this press continues until reinforcement.
- Finally, a cap placed on the loftiest of the column & a concrete cylinder is set up above the cap.
- When all of the cylinders are set up, hydraulic jacks set up on the caps & utilized to lift the foundation.
- Final step- hide the pilings.
Advantages of Pressed Concrete Piling
- The cost is low, with no ponderous equipment requirement.
- Not much planned due to the slab jacking methodology.
Disadvantages of Pressed Concrete Piling
In Dallas and the Dallas / Fort Worth Metroplex, pressed concrete piers are generally not recommended due to the high failure rate and limited depth of the pier’s penetration.
4. Poured Concrete Piers
Installation time is lengthy than pressed concrete pilings since the latter methodology utilizes precast concrete fragments that are solidified during installation. Depth of Foundation- 10 feet. Time taken- 7-10 days.
5. Belled Concrete Piers
Installation process is identical to poured/drilled concrete piers. Bell-shaped bottom or ‘foot’ give a sizeable area of support to the pier. Bell bottom piers are developed by slooshing concrete into a dug aperture & by reinforcing after that. The bell-shaped shaft is bored in the foundation structure & then the shape is removed & reinforced.
Advantages of Belled Concrete Piers
- Provides significant brawn because it is reinforced.
- Bell-shaped bottom intercepts the piers from unwanted movements within soil layer.
- The piers are required to be stiffened much before the completion of project & takes longer.
Disadvantages of Belled Concrete Piers
The method is cumbersome. It needs sufficient storage space for all the materials used in the construction. The advantage of increased bearing capacity due to compaction in granular soil that could be obtained in driven piles is not there in drilled pier construction.
6. Steel Piers
Expansion & contraction of soil is chiefly due to dry soil. Poorly compacted soils turns compacted due to structural load leading to a downward motion of the structure above it. Thus, it’s recommended to use steel push piers.
1st Step– These push piers supply a two-fold system that possesses driving the steel pilings into the load-bearing stratum.
2nd Step– After it reached the load-bearing ground, a hydraulic multipurpose lifting system begins utilizing the steel piers to uplift the foundation & achieve the lost elevation again.
Steps for installation of steel piers
- The ground is dug to install the piers round the foundations.
- The foundation bracket is mounted.
- Push Piers are installed.
- The weight of the structure is conveyed to the steel piers.
7. Helical Steel Piers
Additionally utilized to secure new foundations. Mainly utilized when conditions resist the utilization of other methods.
These piers are pushed into the bottom to a predefined load capacity & weight of the structure is conveyed to the piers & hence to the load-bearing soil.
8. Prof-lift system
The prof-lift arrangement is the newest technology, sturdy & eternal solution for foundation renovation.
9. Soil Injection
Water sticks to clay which results in swelling. Infliction of non-toxic, water-soluble chemicals into the ground beneath the building inhibits soil’s water-absorption capability.
It is recommended to utilize when uplift is fewer than inches & has not extended greater than 10 feet towards interior which results in removal of upheaval resisting sloped foundation & expensive repairs are avoided.
10. Root Barriers
Root barriers of solid substances & sheets of metals resist roots from growing into unwanted areas. Nowadays, root barriers manufactured from a 3-layer plastic membrane are generally installed.
The 2nd & 3rd layers give an extra shield against perforation by root. Advanced root barriers possess the extra shield & play a role in humidity barricade.
Root barriers install by
- Excavating a ditch.
- Laying the barrier substance in the ditch.
- Refilling the trench.
- Pro-lift System
- Concrete piers
- Concrete pilings
- Mud jacking
- Soil injection
- Root Barriers
11. Segmented Piers
It’s a current industry product. Segmented piers are a renovation product for exorbitant foundations & possess a truncated price value.
12. Spot Piers
Spot piers (filled with concrete) are facile, hand-dug piers. They’re worthy in light-ponded areas like porches to repair foundations.
13. High-density Polyurethane Foam
Most effortless process in renovating slabs. In this case, foam is inflicted in a checkerboard grid within the target area.
What Foundation Repair Techniques Are Available?
The renovation required will be according to the kind of soil, climate, foundation build & other outstanding issues. Non-structural cracks in foundations are vertical or diagonal & are caused by expansion & contraction of concrete. Structural cracks are horizontal & caused by settling soil.
Which Parameter Cause the House Foundation Problem?
Your property can be malleable to foundation damages for the subsequent reasons
- It was developed on expansive clay (i.e. soil is high in clay content)
- It was built on unstable & improperly compacted fill soils (soil components start to expand or shrink due to sogginess)
- Area around the foundation possesses poor drainage or water logging issues (plumbing leaks) in areas.
- The structure is a built-in area with tyrannical seasonal changes.
- Witnessing a plumbing leak beneath your home.
- Tree roots are growing adjacent to your home.
- An earthquake, flood, or drought comprised the structure.
- Sudden exertion of unnatural forces.
- Uneven movement at the soil layer after settlement of foundation.
Effects of Foundation Damage
Foundation impairment has multifarious consequences like damage of infrastructure, loss of value in real estate perspective, malfunctioning of the device, cracks, etc. Foundation impairment can additionally make a building or structure un-secured for accommodation.
Some danger signs are
Exterior Warning Signs
- Wall rotation.
- Separation of continuous walls or windows or thickening of exposure parts.
- Cracked bricks or blocks.
- Broken/Cracked foundation.
- Displaced moldings.
- Bowing walls.
- Leaning chimney.
- Beam & post problems.
Interior Warning Signs
- Misaligned doors & windows.
- Cracked sheetrock.
- Cracks in floor as well as bumpy & descending floor.
- Uneven, bulging/cracked floors or floor tiles.
- Cracked ceiling.
- Overlapping of cracked wall between door frame & ceiling.
- Stair issues.
- Garage issues.