## Introduction of Limit State Method:

- The limit state method is a balanced combination of the working stress method and the ultimate load design method.
- Where the working stress method provides adequate performance at the working load but no observation gives to the conditions at the time of the collapse of the structure.
- On the other hand, the ultimate load or load factor method of design is used in construction but the ultimate load method takes to excessive deflection cracking. So it is not preferable.
- But the limit state method is given the exact value of safety. so that method is more preferable in construction.
- This method is used to confirm that the structure should be able to withstand all the load that’s acting on the structure.
- This method gives an idea about the serviceability requirement of limiting deflection and cracking.
- The limit state method is to define the maximum load-carrying capacity and the safety requirements of the structure.
- The limit state method of design is conferred in section 5 of IS code 456: 2000.

Also, Read: Methods of Design | Difference Between Working Stress Method and Limit State Method

## What Is Limit State Method?

- The limit state method is a balanced combination of the working stress method and the ultimate load design method.
- It is also known as load and resistance factor design in structural engineering.
- The limit state method helps us to know the capacity load or working load of the structure.
- The motive of using the limit state method is to construct a safe and comfortable structure.
- This method gives an idea about the serviceability requirement of limiting deflection and cracking.
- To make a safe structure limit state method obey two criteria, one is the ultimate limit state ana another one is the serviceability limit state.
- A limit state design makes a structure more safe, durable, and fit for human uses.
- It gives the idea that the structure ongoing to build can carry the acting loads like dead loads, live loads, wind loads, and earth quick loads are not.

**Limit State of Serviceability:**

- The condition under which the building analyzed useful is called the limit state of serviceability in civil engineering.
- If the structure is not used if it is not serviceable.
- The limit state is sowing to prevent excessive deflection and cracking.
- At the working load, it ensures the adequate performance of the structure.
- It is calculated on the source of elastic theory or working stress method because it is deformed under the working load but not collapse.
- The two criteria are following in the limit state of serviceability that’s are, limit state of deflection and another is a limit state of cracking.
- Based on the most critical limit the structure should be designed and after that checked other limit states.

## Limit State of Collapse:

- Limit state is the maximum stress condition of the structure just before the collapse.
- Throughout a structured life, it gives proper strength and serviceability by limit state.
- Limit state of collapse deals with the safety of the structure and the limit state of serviceability deals with the durability of the structure in the limit state method.

## Assumption in Limit State of Collapse:

- In concrete, the relationship between the stress-strain distribution is assumed to be parabolic.
- The tensile strength of concrete is ignored.
- The maximum compressive load of the structure takes by the concrete.
- The steel takes the maximum tensile load of the structure and takes a little bit of compressive load.
- There should have a perfect bond between steel and concrete.
- In construction, the maximum strain at the outermost compression fibre is
**0.0035 in bending.** - A section that is plane before bending remains plane after bending.
- The maximum strain in the tension reinforcement of the section at failure is not less.

## Limit State Design

**Introduction,**

**Ultimate Limit State,**

**Serviceability Limit State.**

**#1. Introduction of Limit State Design:**

- Limit state design is known as load and resistance factor design.
- This method is used in structural engineering.
- In this limit state method,
- the structure should be able to fulfil two criteria that are the ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state
- In limit state design when a degree of loading acting on a structure, the structure should be fulfilled the criteria that are structural integrity, fitness for use, durability, or another design requirement.

**#2. ****Ultimate Limit State:**

- The ultimate limit state method is known as the calculation method of all load that’s acting on the structure.
- In this method, the engineers have to ensure that the structure that ongoing to build is stable and strong enough against all loads that are acting on the structure like live loads, wind load, dead load, earth quick load, or their combination load.
- From the calculation of the ultimate limit state, we generally get the load vs capacity ratio.
- From this ratio, we know that the ongoing structure can resist or not the load.
- The maximum value load vs capacity ratio is 1 for the permanent load and 1.30 for the temporary loads.

**#3. Serviceability Limit State:**

- In this stage, we have to calculate that the building that we are going to build that’s are adequately safe, and comfortable for human uses.
- But there has a little condition that is before the calculation of serviceability limit state we have to calculate the ultimate limit state. Because at first, we have to calculate the capacity of the building then the comfort level of the building.
- The serviceability limit is the service of the building like cracking check, deflection check, dampness check, etc.

Also, Read: What Is Mix Design of Concrete | Nominal Mix | Design Mix| Difference Between Nominal Mix and Design Mix

## Limit State Method of RCC Design:

- Limit state method of RCC design in which we can know the permissible load that can carry the RCC structure safely.
- Plane cement concrete has high compressive strength but low tensile strength. So the beam or column made by plane cement concrete has a low load-carrying capacity and fails by cracking in the tension zone.
- So the reinforced steel bar is placed in the concrete in the tension zone. The steel bars take the tensile stress and concrete take compressive stress. That makes the beam strong.
- The steel bars that are provided in the tension zone are called the main bar.
- In this process, we can know the condition of the buildings or structure.
- And after knowing the condition of the building or structure we can decide that the building need services or repairs are not.
- Using this limit state method we can design the RCC beam-column or structure.

Also, Read: What Is RQD | Advantages of Rock Quality Designation | Limitations of Rock Quality Designation (RQD)

## What Is Working Stress Method?

**Working Stress Design Method** is a **method** used for the reinforced concrete **design** where concrete is assumed as elastic, steel and concrete act together elastically where the relationship between loads and **stresses** is linear.

## Working Stress Method:

- Plane cement concrete has high compressive strength but low tensile strength. So the beam or column made by plane cement concrete has a low load-carrying capacity and fails by cracking in the tension zone.
- So the reinforced steel bar is placed in the concrete in the tension zone. The steel bars take the tensile stress and concrete take compressive stress. That makes the beam strong.
- The steel bars that are provided in the tension zone are called the main bar.
- By the working stress method, we can design the above column or beam.

Also, Read: What Is Cantilever | What Is Cantilever Footing | Design of the Cantilever Footing

## Assumptions in Working Stress Method:

- A section that is plane before bending remains plane after bending.
- The steel and concrete behave as a linear elastic element.
- The concrete takes the compressive load but not takes the tensile load.
- On the other hand, the steel takes the compressive load but not takes the compressive load.
- The moduli elasticity of concrete and steel are constant.
- The bonds between concrete and steel reinforcement should be perfect.
- Under the working load, the stress-strain relationship of concrete and steel is a straight line.

Also, Read: West Point Bridge Designer

### Limitations of Working Stress Method:

- The limit state method gives a reasonable measure of strength. Where the working stress method does not give a reasonable measure of strength.

**Working Stress Method of Design:**

- This method is used for reinforcing the concrete design.
- Where steel and concrete simultaneously act elastically.
- The relationship between stress and load is linear.
- The moduli elasticity of concrete and steel are constant.
- In this method, we don’t get the true margin of the load that’s acting on the structure.
- In this method, concrete is assumed elastic material.

Also, Read: Soak Pit Design | Health Aspects | Operation and Maintenance of Soak Pit | Applicability of Soak Pit Design

### Working Stress Method

The **method** basically assumes that the structural material behaves as a linear elastic manner and that adequate safety can be ensured by suitably restricting the **stresses** in the material induced by the expected “**working loads**” on the structure.

### Limit State of Serviceability

It refers to conditions other than the building strength that render the buildings unusable. **Serviceability limit state** design of structures includes factors such as durability, overall stability, fire resistance, deflection, cracking and excessive vibration.

Also, Read: How to Structural Design a Building/House Step by Step Part-4 (Column Design)

### Limit State of Collapse

**Limit state**is a condition just before the

**collapse**. A structure designed by

**limit state**should give proper strength and serviceability throughout its life. In

**limit state**method, the

**limit state of collapse**deals with the safety of structure and

**limit state**of serviceability deals with the durability of structure.

### Working Stress Method of Design

**Working Stress Design Method** is a **method** used for the reinforced concrete **design** where concrete is assumed as elastic, steel and concrete act together elastically where the relationship between loads and **stresses** is linear.

### Limit State Method of Rcc Design

The **Limit State Method** is defined as a **method** which **limits** the structural use of the material of the structure up to a certain load at which acceptable **limit** of safety and serviceability are applied so that the failure of structure does not occur.

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