## What Is Mix Design of Concrete?

**Concrete ****mix design** involves a process of preparation in which a **mix** of ingredients **creates the required strength and durability for the concrete structure.**

The ingredients to be tested:** water, fine aggregate (sand), coarse aggregate, cement, chemicals, reinforcement, and soil.**

## Nominal Mix

**Nominal mix** specifies the fix proportion of the cement, sand and aggregates. Ingredients of concrete are **mixed** on the basis of volume.

It is a site-level **mixing** of ingredients to prepare a concrete **mix**. Such What Is Concrete | 31 Plush Different Types of Concrete **mix** is generally used in small quantity or where the load is not high.

Also, Read: Concrete Mix Ratio | What Is Concrete Mix Ratio | Types of Concrete Mix Ratio

## Nominal Mix Concrete

**Nominal mixes** offer simplicity and under normal circumstances, have a margin of strength above that specified.

However, due to the variability of **mix** ingredients the **nominal concrete** for given workability varies widely in strength. **Nominal mix** ratios for **concrete** are 1:2:4 for M15, 1:1.5:3 for M20 etc.

## Design Mix

**Design mix** is a process to prepare the concrete by testing all necessary properties (like properties of cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate) of concrete ingredients.

Ingredients of concrete are **mixed** on the basis of weight. It is generally **designed** from ready **Mix** Concrete (RMC) plant.

Also, Read: How is Concrete Made | What is Concrete | Components of Concrete | How to Mix Concrete

## Nominal Mix Ratio and Design Mix Ratio

| Design | Mix Ratio | Compressive Strength | |

MPa (N/mm2) | psi | |||

M5 | Nominal Mix | 1:5:10 | 5 MPa | 725 psi |

M7.5 | Nominal Mix | 1:4:8 | 7.5 MPa | 1087 psi |

M10 | Nominal Mix | 1:3:6 | 10 MPa | 1450 psi |

M15 | Nominal Mix | 1:2:4 | 15 MPa | 2175 psi |

M20 | Nominal Mix | 1:1.5:3 | 20 MPa | 2900 psi |

M25 | Nominal Mix | 1:1:2 | 25 MPa | 3625 psi |

M30 | Design Mix | NA | 30 MPa | 4350 psi |

M35 | Design Mix | NA | 35 MPa | 5075 psi |

M40 | Design Mix | NA | 40 MPa | 5800 psi |

M45 | Design Mix | NA | 45 MPa | 6525 psi |

M50 | Design Mix | NA | 50 MPa | 7250 psi |

M55 | Design Mix | NA | 55 MPa | 7975 psi |

M60 | Design Mix | NA | 60 MPa | 8700 psi |

M65 | Design Mix | NA | 65 MPa | 9425 psi |

M70 | Design Mix | NA | 70 MPa | 10150 psi |

## Difference Between Nominal Mix and Design Mix

Sr.No. | Detail | Nominal Mix Concrete | Design Mix Concrete |

1 | Mixing | The nominal mix is site-level mixing small concrete mixer can be used to mix the ingredients. | The design mix is designed from a ready mix concrete plant that is RMC plant. |

2 | Mix Design | There are many grades of nominal mix concrete like M-5, M-7.5, M-10, M-15 and M-20. | Design mix – Design mix is a process to prepare the concrete by testing all necessary properties (like properties of cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate) of concrete ingredients. |

3 | Tests | For a nominal mix, no laboratory tests are conducted. | The design mix is based on laboratory trial-and-error experiment method. |

4 | Time | The nominal mix is easy to make at the construction site. It does not take more time to decide the proportion because proportions are already given in IS456:2000. | Whereas the design mix is very difficult and its process takes more than 30 days, time to find out the most suitable mix for the project for design mix IS-20262 shall be followed. |

5 | Skilled persons | For a nominal mix, there is no need of skilled persons. | Whereas for design mix skilled person shall be required to prepare the mix design. |

6 | Basis | The nominal mix is based on past experience and has no scientific approach. | Whereas the design mix is more scientific than the nominal mix. |

7 | Strength | The nominal mix may or may not give exactly design strength unless all other factors like compaction, water-cement ratio curing of concrete are strictly followed. | Whereas design mix not only makes concrete of design strength but also makes it economical too. |

8 | Accuracy | In the case of nominal mix water-cement ratio is considered by the assumption so if we do not take care of it sometimes it leads to bleeding segregation and may make concrete of poor strength and durability. | Whereas in the case of design mix, there is no such problem slump and strength can be related that is for the strength. We can use different slump by changing the water-cement ratio with or without admixtures. |

9 | Use | The nominal mix is preferred for simpler relatively unimportant and small concrete works, in other words, the nominal mixes adopted for ordinary concrete work nominal mix may be used for concrete of M 20 grade or lower grade. | Whereas design mixed is used for more extensive and important concrete works design mix can be used for all the grades but it is generally used for M 25 and above grades. |

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