Reinforced Concrete Frame
The reinforced concrete frame is a superstructure combined with horizontal components, i.e. columns and vertical components, i.e. beams.
The whole construction that is beams and columns are monolithic construction, i.e. the whole construction is cast in a single operation.
Sometimes this concrete frame is also called as a skeleton of this entire structure. In this structure, the vertical members, i.e. columns, carry the entire load of the building, so it’s the most important part of this type of construction.
If a beam or slab of this structure is get damaged, then just one floor is affected, but it will damage the whole building if columns are damaged.
This is reinforced construction so that the whole structure is combined with steel reinforcement cause, the steel can not carry the total tensile load of the structure and the compressive load is carried by both concrete and reinforcement.
Concrete frames are mainly two types, those are-
- Cast in situ
Precast concrete frame structures are used in one storey building. Precast structures are directly brought from factories and then fix it to the site.
Concrete Frame Construction
- The first step of concrete construction is “formwork”. This is that type of structure which contains the whole semi-solid concrete and this formwork gives it to the perfect and required size and shape.
- The second step of concrete construction is to fix the reinforcement. It’s one of the most important works in the entire job. The entire reinforcements are fixed according to the engineer’s drawing.
- After that, we prepare the concrete and pour the concrete to the formwork. It needs some time to get the required strength.
- In this time the concrete needs curing to get its actual strength. There are many curing methods are used, those are pond curing, spray curing, wet jute bag curing, etc.
Concrete Building Construction
Concrete building construction means reinforced concrete building construction which is a composite structure.
In reinforced concrete construction there are mainly two types of RCC is used, those are precast concrete and cast in situ concrete.
Reinforced concrete includes different types of building component, those are-
In the reinforced concrete frame structure you can change the building structure easily, it’s the main advantage of RCC frame structure.
There are different types of beams are present in civil engineering, those are-
Types of Beams
- Singly Reinforced Beam.
- Doubly Reinforced Beam.
- Over Reinforced Beam.
- Under Reinforced Beam.
- Balanced Reinforced Beam.
- In this type of beam the reinforcements are provided only the tensile portion of the beam and the reinforcements are called tension steel. It’s provided only to resist the bending moment of the beam.
2. Doubly Reinforced Beam
- This is a stronger beam than the singly reinforced beam. In this type of beam, the reinforcements are provided in a tensile zone as well as compression zone and it helps the beam to resist both tensile & compressive moment.
3. Over Reinforced Beam
- This is that type of beam where the tension steel’s tension capacity is greater than the combined capacity of compressive concrete and compression steel. Over reinforced beams fails without getting any warning.
4. Under Reinforced Beam
- In this type of beam where the tensile reinforcement capacity is smaller than the combined capacity of concrete and compression steel. Under reinforced beam gives a warning before failure and causes a large deformation.
#5. Balanced Reinforced Beam
- This is that type of beam where tensile zone and compressive zone yields at the same time. This is a risky design because the failure suddenly happen.
Frame construction is divided into two types, that are-
- Light frame construction.
- Heavy frame construction.
Frame Construction Advantages
- It’s economical.
- It’s versatile.
- It’s easy to erect.
Frame Construction Disadvantages
- It’s unstable in fire.
- It’s highly damageable.
- Fire spreads easily.
Balloon Framing Construction
- It’s a wooden construction technique.
- In balloon construction, long members are used from the sill plate to the top plate.
- Window sill height, floor heights are marked with a story pole.
- Balloon construction does not require any type of skilled labours that’s why it’s also economical.
Types of Frame
- Steel Frame.
- Timber Frame.
- Concrete Frame.
- Fix Ended Rigid Frame.
- Pin Ended Rigid Frame.
- Braced Frame System.
- Gabled Frames.
1. Steel Frame
- Steel frame type construction is a quick type of construction because all the components are designed in outside and you need to fix them only.
- Steel structures are lighter than concrete and now it’s also used in domestic purpose.
- In skeleton form steels are also used in beams are columns.
2. Timber Frame
- Timber frame construction is also the fast type of construction, it reduces 30% time than masonry works.
- Timbers are super lightweight & those have higher insulation property.
3. Concrete Frame
- The reinforced concrete frame is one of the most common types of construction.
- In this type at first the formwork is done.
4. Fixed Ended Rigid Frame
- In fix end rigid frame structure both ends are rigidly fixed.
5. Pin Ended Rigid Frame
- In pin ended rigid frame structure both ends are pin ended but the whole structure is not considered as rigid structure when you removed the end condition.
6. Braced Frame System
- In the braced frame system the beams & columns are pinned with bracing which supports lateral loads.
- The lateral forces are supported by horizontal and vertical bracing.
- The braced frame system is good to resist earthquake and wind conditions.
7. Gabled Frames
- In the Gabled frame structure, there is a peak on the top of the structure.
- This frame structure is highly suitable in heavy rain & snow areas.
8. Portal Frames
- Portal frame construction is mainly useful in a commercial and industrial area.
- It looks like door