Quality Testing of Sand for Concrete | Quality Testing of Sand for Construction | Types of Sand Test

Quality Testing of Sand for Concrete | Quality Testing of Sand for Construction | Type of Sand Test

Quality Testing of Sand at The Construction Site for The Concrete

There are different methods for testing the quality of sand at the construction site for concrete construction. The quality of the sand is as important as other materials for concrete.

The most different, which passes through the 4.75 mm IS strainer, is known as the fine aggregate. The fine aggregate will typically consist of natural sand, crushed stone sand, crushed gravel sand stone dust or arable powder, fly ash, and broken brick (burnt clay).

Sand at The Construction

It will be hard, durable, chemically inert, clean and free from sedimentary coatings, organic materials, etc. and will not contain any appreciable amount of clay shells or pellets and harmful impurities.

To cause corrosion of iron pyrites, alkalis, salts, coal, asbestos, shale, or similar laminated or similar amounts of metal or to adversely affect the strength, durability, or presence of mortar, plaster or concrete.

The sum of the percentage of all harmful material shall not exceed 5%. Fine aggregates should be checked for biological impurities such as decayed vegetative humps, coal dust, etc.

Also, read: M30 Grade of Concrete Mix Design Procedure with OPC 53 Cement

Quality Test of Sand at a Construction Site

Following are the sand tests at the construction site:

1. Testing of Organic Impurities

This test is done in the field for every 20 co or part thereof.

2. Silt Material Testing

This is also a field test and is to be conducted for every 20 co.

3. Particle Size Distribution

This test can be conducted on-site or in the laboratory for every 40 co sand.

4. Sandpile

This test is conducted on-site for every 20 sand. Based on the bulking of the sand, the water-cement ratio suitable for concrete on site is calculated.

Also, read: Procedure for Rcc Concrete

Types of Sand Test

Type of Sand Test

1. Testing for Sand Silt Content Test

The maximum amount of silt in the sand shall not exceed 8%. Fine aggregates containing more than an acceptable percentage of silt will be washed so as to bring the silt content within an acceptable range.

2. Testing for Grading of Sand

On the basis of particle size, fine aggregates are classified into four regions. Where the grading is outside the range of a particular grading zone, the other strainer is over 600 microns.

If the total amount does not exceed 5 percent, it will be considered to fall within that grading zone.

3. Testing for Harmful Materials in the Sand

Such as seaweed or in such sufficient quantities as to adversely harden. To be positively affected. Specific strength or excellent durability of mortar.

The maximum amount of soil, fine silt, fine dust, and organic impurities in sand/marble dust shall not exceed the following limits:

(A) Clay, fine silt and fine dust when in IS 2386 (Part-II), natural sand or crushed gravel sand and crushed stone sand does not exceed 5% by mass.

(B) Organic impurities, when determined in the color of the liquid, will be the lighter according to IS 2386  than specified in the social code.

4. Testing for Sand Bulging

Dry aggregates, when dry or saturated, contain approximately the same amount but increase in income due to moisture. If the fine aggregate is moist in proportion to the ingredients of the mortar or concrete, its volume shall be suitably increased to allow in bulk.

Also, read: What Is Spalling Concrete | Causes of Spalling in Concrete | Repairing Concrete Spalding 

Effect of Silt Penalty on the Durability Properties of Concrete

Silt fines are 75 smaller (number 200) particles smaller than the sieve. Typically, they are either silted or silted from clay and are difficult to remove from the overall surface.

Considering the high proportion of silt fines found in Taiwanese river sands, this research investigates the effect of the material on the properties of concrete.

In this study, solid samples with a w / c ratio of 0.48 and varying silt content ranging from 0% to 9% were separated and tested. In addition, chloride transport tests were performed to check the properties of concrete.

The test results indicate a decrease in durability when the ratio of silt content to fine aggregate is more than 5%.

The compressive strength, however, increases only 1 MPa when the silt volume is less than 5%. But it decreases from 3 MPa to 5 MPa when silt content increases from 7% to 9%.

These results can serve as a reference in concrete production, as well as quality control of fine aggregate with large quantities of silt fines.

Also, read: Concrete Material Calculation / Concrete Quantity

Tests on Fine Aggregate

Tests on Fine Aggregate

Dry aggregates, when dry or saturated, contain approximately the same amount but increase in income due to moisture.

If the fine aggregate is moist in proportion to the ingredients of the mortar or concrete, its volume shall be suitably increased to allow in bulk.

At this time, there is no national specification regarding the use of desert sand with very fine grains.

Civil engineering has tested concrete made of Tengeli desert sand and masu sandy sand, to be able to apply desert sand to mortar and concrete and to clarify its engineering characteristics.

Typically based on the determined chemical composition and physical characteristics of desert sand, the mechanical properties of mortar, and modern concrete instantly made from two specific types of desert, sand was promptly investigated.

The results of the tests indicated that desert sand could be used as a good aggregate in mortar and concrete for general civil engineering.


Sand Test

Take a some amount of sand in to your hand and drop it in to the glass which contain water. After drooping the sand than shake the glass. In another simple test take some amount of sand in your hand and then drop it. If sand stick in to you fingers it indicate the presence of clay in sand.

Field Test of Sand

In order to detect presence of organic impurities in sand, add sand to the solution of sodium hydroxide or caustic soda and then stir it. Take a pinch of sand and taste it. If tasted salty then there exist some salt in sand. Take sand and rub it against the fingers.

Methods of Sand testing

  • Moisture Content Test.
  • Clay Content Test.
  • Grain Fitness Test.
  • Air Permeability Test.
  • Strength Test.
  • Refractoriness Test.
  • Mould hardness Test (Brinell Hardness, Rockwell)

IS Code for Sand

Type of Sand IS Code
Concrete Sand IS – 383: 1970
Brick/ Block Work Sand IS – 2116: 1980
Plastering Sand IS – 1542: 1992

Grades of Sand

In the United States, sand is commonly divided into five sub-categories based on size: very fine sand ( 1⁄16 – 1⁄8 mm diameter), fine sand ( 1⁄8 mm – 1⁄4 mm), medium sand ( 1⁄4 mm – 1⁄2 mm), coarse sand ( 1⁄2 mm – 1 mm), and very coarse sand (1 mm – 2 mm).

Types of Construction Sand

  • Pit Sand.
  • Artificial Sand.
  • Beach & Sea Sand.
  • River sand.
  • Fine Sand.
  • Coarse Sand.
  • Gravelly Sand.
  • Concrete Sand.
  • Utility Sand.
  • Fill Sand.

Leave a Comment