Introduction of Space Structure:
Space frame structures are widely used for the construction of large span areas with few interior supports. Space frame structure system is widely used worldwide because of the numerous advantages in covering the largest span areas.
In this article, you will get to know about the space frame structure and the types of space frame structure. The space frame structures are light in weight because the material which is used in the space frame structure is distributed especially in such a way that the total load transfer mechanism is primarily axial, compression or tension.
Space frames were independently developed by Alexander Graham Bell. Space frame structures are light in weight and very easy to handle and transport from one place to another place. Space frame structures have very little deflection and consistent higher compressive as well as tensile loads.
In case of the space frame structures, the concentrated loads are evenly distributed all over the structure. The main purpose of using space frame structures to cover the large span area and giving a pleasant experience to the structure.
The space frame architecture is widely used in the construction of Airports, stadiums, exhibition halls, swimming pools and Towers, etc. Space frame structures have an ability to resist and redistribute the total concentrated load all over the structure.
The different types of services like lightning and Air conditioning can be easily accommodated in the space in the space frame structure. Space frame structures are three-dimensional structures which have different types of members and connections. The most common type of members and connections are double layer grids which have steel pipe sections.
Space frame structures are designed using a rigid matrix. The space frame structure is a three-dimensional structure which is assembled in linear elements which are arranged to transfer the load.
The Space frame structure is constructed with steel and Timber. The Steel material is for the space frame structure to sustain more load. Due to the 3D dimensional behavior, the space frame structures are usually stiff and it can sustain with heavily concentrated loading.
What Is Space Frame?
In architecture and structural engineering, a space frame (3D truss) is a rigid, lightweight, truss-like structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. Space frames can be used to span large areas with few interior supports.
The strength of a space frame structure is due to the inherent stiffness of the triangle and flexing loads that are transmitted along the length of each strut in the form of tension and compression loads.
Components of Space Frame System.
There are various components of space frame structures which mainly consists of linear action members and node connectors. The linear fractional members are mainly circular and rectangular The tube or pipe sections are used in the space frame system because it can be easily assembled with the help of node connectors.
The node connectors are widely used for the connect one of the different joints of the members. The structure is axially loaded in which the total applied structural load is transmitted through the nodal joints only.
It is very necessary that the nodal join should be very strong and rigid so that it can sustain the Structural loads. Simple prefabricated units of space frame structure of standard size and shapes are available in the market.
Advantages of Space Frame Structure.
There are various Advantages of a space frame structure which are as follows
- Space frame structures are lightweight.
- The space frame structure is sufficiently stiff.
- It is very easy to install the space frame structures because of its prefabricated component parts.
- Space frame structures have excellent duration to depth ratio.
- Space frame structures are very easy to transport and handle.
- This type of structures provides good cambering facilities.
- Space frame structures have excellent acoustic properties.
- It does not require purlins.
- It is more suitable for the structures which have irregular plan shape and site.
- Also, suitable for a structure that has a larger span.
- It provides a column-free explicit term.
- This structure eliminates the need for geometric stability, providing a mid-column.
- It provides a large spawn at low altitudes.
- It provides minimum deflection.
- It provides low transportation costs.
Disadvantages of Space Frame Structure.
The disadvantages of space frame structures are as follows
- The construction of the space frame structure is restricted to the 40 ft when the reinforced concrete is used.
- Space frames which are span in three-dimensional plate structure which are based on the rigidity of the triangle and composed of linear elements generally subject only to axial tension or compression.
- Even though there are some connections which are comparatively rigid joints due to the influence of bending or torsional moment is insignificant.
Types of Space Frame.
There are different types of space frames classified into different types
- Curvature Classification:
- Space Plane Covers:
- Barrel Vaults:
- Spherical Domes:
- Classification by Arrangements of Its Elements:
- Single Layer Grid:
- Double Layer Grid:
- Triple Layer Grid:
1. Curvature Classification:
1.a. Space Plane Covers
Spatial structures mainly composed of planar Sub-structures. The planes are channelled through the horizontal bars and the shear forces are supported by the diagonals.
1.b. Barrel Vaults
This type has a cross-section of a simple arch. It is usually required the use of tetrahedral modules or pyramids as a part of its unit.
1.c. Spherical Domes
Usually requires the use of tetrahedral modules or pyramids and additional support from a skin.
2. Classification by Arrangements of Its Elements
2.a. Single Layer Grid
All Elements are placed on the surface approximately.
2.b. Double Layer Grid
This type of frames is commonly used in the space frame. Elements are organized in two parallel layers with each other at a certain distance apart. The diagonals bars connecting the nodes of both layers are in different directions.
2.c. Triple Layer Grid
Space Frame Structures Examples.
The space frame structure example is as follows
- Stansted Airport, by Foster Partners.
- Bank of China Tower and the Louvre Pyramid.
- Rogers Centre by Rod Robbie and Michael Allan
- McCormick Place East in Chicago.
- Arena das Dunas in Natal, Brazil by Populous
- Eden Project in Cornwall, England
- Globen, Sweden – Dome with a diameter of 110 m, (1989)
- Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport terminal 2.
Limitations of Space Frame Structure
Space Frame Structure has following limitations.
- Space frames are classified into three types conferring to the number of grid layers; Single, double, or triple layer.
- Space frame trusses can be used for platforms or overhead structures that span large distances without the need for internal load-bearing supports.
- Space can be made by frame connection; welding, bolting or threading
- Space frame construction uses three main methods of construction; Scaffolding Method, Block Assembly Method, Lift-up Method
- Space frames are beneficial by them as associated with other common structures; Lightweight, mass production, rigidity, and versatility.