Introduction of Space Structure:
- The construction and development of the frame space structures are going all over the world. In the last few decades, space frames structures gain more importance.
- Space frame or the space structure is a rigid and lightweight structure which is constructed from the interlocking struts in the different geometric patterns.
- Space frames structures are widely used for the construction of large span areas with few interior supports.
- Space frame structure system is widely used worldwide because of the numerous advantages in covering the largest span areas.
- In this article, you will get to know about the space frame structure and the types of the space frame structure.
- The space frame structures are light in weight because the material which is used in the space frame structure is distributed especially in such a way that the total load transfer mechanism is primarily axial, compression or tension.
- The space frame is the simplest form of Structure which is the horizontal slab of interlocking square pyramids main rebuild from the aluminium or steel struts.
- Space frames were independently developed by the Alexander Graham Bell.
- Space frame structures are light in weight and very easy to handle and transport from one place to another place.
- Space frame structures have very less deflection and consistent higher compressive as well as tensile loads.
- In case of the space frame structures, the concentrated loads are evenly distributed all over the structure. The main purpose of using space frame structures to cover the large span area and giving a pleasant experience to the structure.
- The space frame architecture is widely used in the construction of Airports, stadiums, exhibition halls, swimming pools and Towers etc
- Space frame structures have an ability to resist and redistribute the total concentrated load all over the structure.
- The different types of services like lightning and Air conditioning can be easily accommodated in the space in the space frame structure.
- Space frame structures are three-dimensional structures which have different types of members and connections. The most common type of members and connections are double layer grids which have steel pipe sections.
- Space frame structures are designed using a rigid matrix. The space frame structure is a three-dimensional structure which is assembled in linear elements which are arranged to transfer the load.
- The Space frame structure is constructed with steel and Timber. The Steel material is for the space frame structure to sustain more load.
- Due to the 3D dimensional behaviour, the space frame structures are usually stiff and it can sustain with heavily concentrated loading.
- Space frame structure system is indeterminate structures. The speed of the construction in the space frame structures is very rapid and can cover large areas with minimum time duration.
Components of Space Frame System.
- There are various components of space frame structures which mainly consists of linear action members and node connectors.
- The linear fractional members are mainly circular and rectangular The tube or pipe sections are used in the space frame system because it can be easily assembled with the help of node connectors.
- The node connectors are widely used for the connect one of the different joints of the members. The structure is axially loaded in which the total applied structural load is transmitted through the nodal joints only.
- It is very necessary that the nodal join should be very strong and rigid so that it can sustain the Structural loads.
- Simple prefabricated units of space frame structure of standard size and shapes are available in the market.
Advantages of Space Frame Structure.
There are various Advantages of a space frame structure which are as follows
- Space frame structures are lightweight.
- The space frame structure is sufficiently stiff.
- It is very easy to install the space frame structures because of its prefabricated component parts.
- Space frame structures have excellent duration to depth ratio.
- Space frame structures are very easy to transport and handle.
- This type of structures provides good cambering facilities.
- Space frame structures have excellent acoustic properties.
Disadvantages of Space Frame Structure.
The disadvantages of space frame structures are as follows
- The construction of the space frame structure is restricted to the 40 ft when the reinforced concrete is used.
- Space frames which are span in three-dimensional plate structure which are based on the rigidity of the triangle and composed of linear elements generally subject only to axial tension or compression.
- Even though there are some connections which are comparatively rigid joints due to the influence of bending or torsional moment is insignificant.
Types of Space Frame.
There are different types of space frames classified into different types
- Curvature Classification:
- Space Plane Covers:
- Barrel Vaults:
- Spherical Domes:
- Classification by Arrangements of Its Elements:
- Single Layer Grid:
- Double Layer Grid:
- Triple Layer Grid:
#1. Curvature Classification:
#1a. Space Plane Covers:
- Spatial structures mainly composed of planar Sub-structures.
- The planes are channelled through the horizontal bars and the shear forces are supported by the diagonals.
#1b. Barrel Vaults:
- This type has a cross-section of a simple arch.
- It is usually required the use of tetrahedral modules or pyramids as a part of its unit.
#1c. Spherical Domes:
- Usually requires the use of tetrahedral modules or pyramids and additional support from a skin.
#2. Classification by Arrangements of Its Elements:
#2a. Single Layer Grid:
- All Elements are placed on the surface approximately
#2b. Double Layer Grid:
- This type of frames is commonly used in the space frame.
- Elements are organized in two parallel layers with each other at a certain distance apart.
- The diagonals bars connecting the nodes of both layers are in different directions.
#2c. Triple Layer Grid:
- These frames are placed in three parallel lines are linked by the diagonals.
- This is almost always flat.
- They are mostly used for larger span building.
Space Frame Structures Examples.
The space frame structure example is as follows
- Stansted Airport, by Foster Partners.
- Bank of China Tower and the Louvre Pyramid.
- Rogers Centre by Rod Robbie and Michael Allan
- McCormick Place East in Chicago.
- Arena das Dunas in Natal, Brazil by Populous
- Eden Project in Cornwall, England
- Globen, Sweden – Dome with a diameter of 110 m, (1989)
- Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport terminal 2.