## What Is Slab?

Important Point

In the structural system of buildings, slabs are an important element of the floor system. Slabs usually transfer loads such as gravity loads, dead loads, and live loads to a vertical framing system such as columns. Slabs are used as floor and ceiling in various buildings.

Slabs cover a large area of concrete in a building. So during an earthquake, various external forces are attracted to the surface of the slab.

Slabs are represented by different designs in different types of compositions. Such as to obtain flat surfaces in a particular building and as a deck slab of a bridge. The slab is usually formed by the structure of a reinforced concrete beam.

The two main types of slabs used in the construction of a building are widely used as one-way slabs and two-way slabs. This article provides information about the difference between a one-way slab and a two-way slab.

Also Read: Concrete Slab Pricing Calculator

## Function of Slab

**Depending on the Design as Per the Requirement of the Structure, Some of the Main Functions of the Slab Are Shown Below:**

- The slab provides a platform to work on the structure.
- The one-way slab or two-way slab method is properly used to transfer the load on the slab.
- The slab provides a flat surface to work with easily.
- The design of the multi-story building has been made possible by slabs.
- The slab can be used as a sound, heat as well as a fire insulator.
- The slab helps to keep the room private.

## Type of Slabs

Based on support conditions,

- One Way Slab
- Two Way Slab
- Flat Slab Resting Direction on a Column Without Beam
- Grid Slabs or Waffle Slab

### 1. One-Way Slab

A one-way slab is designed in such a way that the load on the beam carries in one direction. The one-way slab is usually used for a short span.

According to IS 456: 2000, the ratio of long span (L) to short span (B) in one way slab is greater than 2.

**Mathematically;**

**Longer Span / Shorter Span ≥ 2.**

One-way slabs can be constructed only on two parallel beams or walls in building construction. One-way slabs are commonly used for short spans in a building.

The main reinforcement arranges reinforcement for one-way slabs in a short span and distribution reinforcement in a long span.

Also Read: How Much Does a Concrete Slab Cost?

**Some examples of one-way slabs include cantilever slabs, chajja, and verandas.**

- The supported slab on each of the two walls is always supported by one slab.
- A slab supported by less than four sides in a slab Structure in a building can be designed as a one-way slab.
- All cantilever slabs are simple examples of a one-way slabs.

### 2. Two Way Slab

Two-way slabs are supported from all four sides. The load is transferred in both directions through this slab. The main reinforcement for the structure of a two-way slab is given in both directions.

A two-way slab is designed when the ratio of a long span to a short span is less than two. This type of slab carries the load in two directions.

The thickness of the two-away slab depends on the deflection control criteria. In this type of slab, the reinforcement in the directions is designed to resist the bending moments.

Two-way slabs are commonly used to suit the needs of multi-story and commercial buildings.

### 3. Flat Slab

A flat slab is a type of reinforced concrete slab. There are no beams and girders as support for the formation of a flat slab. In this type of flat slab, the load is transferred directly to the concrete columns.

Flat slabs are used by engineers for the construction of the building as required in different situations.

**Some of the Advantages of the Flat Slab Are as Follows:**

- The flat slab can be properly planned for partition walls.
- Using a flat slab for a building can give the owner the opportunity to choose a room layout as needed.
- Using a flat slab in a building eliminates the need for false ceilings.
- The floor height can be increased as no beams are used in the flat slab.

### 4. Grid Slab

For a large room slab, a slab is formed over a number of beams on the column at the corner end. This type of slab structure is called a grid slab.

Sometimes grid slabs are designed for large column-free areas in large halls, public places, auditoriums, marriage halls, etc. For the formation of this type of slab, deep depth may be allowed for the column-to-column main beam.

Also Read: How to Structural Design a Building/House Step by Step Part-1 (One Way Simply Support Slab)

## Analysis of Slab

The structural design of the slab is the same as that of the beam. The slab is analyzed as follows,

### 1. Elastic Analysis

The 1 m wide strips of the slab is analyzed as a base. The load on this base is calculated. Thus, a 1 m strip of the slab is analyzed by assuming a dummy beam as 1 m.

### 2. Code Coefficients:

The slab is analyzed by yield line theory. The analysis of the slab can be directly relied on as a coefficient, as shown in the code.

The calculation of redistribution of moments is not taken into account for slab analysis.

### 3. Yield Line Theory

Yield line theory is a method of analysis based on the final bending moment for the edge of a fall for a slab.

At collapse loads, the slab starts to crack because the slab is usually under-reinforced.

## Reinforcement Details In Slab

The design of reinforcement in the slab is used to safely distribute the forces coming on the slab to the column.

### 1. One Way Slab Reinforcement Details

- In a one-way slab, the load is transferred from one side to the other. In this type of slab, the maximum load will be transmitted over a long span. Therefore it is necessary to give proper reinforcement on the long-span side.
- So in a one-way slab to provide adequate support to the long-span side, the main reinforcement is placed parallel to the short span by proper spacing, and the distribution reinforcement is placed on the long side according to the correct spacing.
- Therefore, one-way slabs are preferred over the short span of the slab. Where main reinforcement is given on long-span due to bending. Reinforcement of one Way Slab is given as shown in the figure.

### 2. Two Way Slab Reinforcement Details

- In a two-way slab, the applied external load is transferred to both sides in a long span and short span.
- In two way slab, the main reinforcement is laid on both sides. In this type of slab, the load on both sides is evenly distributed.
- In RCC two Way slab, each of the four sides is held on the beam by main reinforcement. A load of a two-way slab is transferred through structural elements such as beams.

## Types of Loads Acting on Slab

**There Are Different Loads on the Slab. This Is Shown as Follows:**

- Wind load
- Live load
- The dead load of the slab
- Earthquake loads
- Snow load

## Difference Between One Way Slab and Two Way Slab

### 1. One Way Slab Vs Two Way Slab: Definition

- In a one-way slab, the length of the long span is greater than the ratio of the short span to two.
- In a two-way slab, the length of the long span is less than or equal to the ratio of the short span.

### 2. One Way Slab Vs Two Way Slab: Support

- One-way slab Only two opposite sides are supported by a beam or wall.
- The two-way slab is supported from all four sides.

### 3. One Way Slab Vs Two Way Slab: Transfer load

- One Way Slab, the utmost load is transmitted by long span.
- In Two Way, Slab load is transferred in both spans (long span and short span).

### 4. One Way Slab Vs Two Way Slab: Require Reinforcement

- A one-way slab requires less reinforcement than a two-way slab.
- Two-way slabs require more reinforcement than one-way slabs.

### 5. One Way Slab Vs Two Way Slab: Bending Moment

- In one way slab, a bending moment occurs in a short span in only one direction one-way slab, a bending moment occurs in a short span in only one direction.
- The bending moment in a two-way slab occurs in both directions, a longer span and a shorter span.

### 6. One Way Slab Vs Two Way Slab: Shape

- The shape of a one-way slab is usually rectangular.
- The shape of a two-way slab is usually square.

### 7. One Way Slab Vs Two Way Slab: Direction of Load Transfer

- In one way slab, the load is transferred in one direction.
- In a two-way slab, the load is transferred in both directions.

### 8. One Way Slab Vs Two Way Slab: Cost

- One-way slabs are economically less expensive than two-way slabs.
- Two-way slabs are economically more expensive than one-way slabs.

### 9. One Way Slab Vs Two Way Slab: Deflection

- Deflection in a one-way slab gives it a cylindrical shape.
- Deflection in a two-way slab makes it look like a bowl.

### 10. One Way Slab Vs Two Way Slab: Thickness

- One-way slab thickness can be designed from 4 inches to 6 inches (100 mm to 150 mm) depending on deflection and span.
- The thickness of the two-way slab can be designed from 4 inches to 8 inches (100 mm to 200 mm) depending on the deflection and span.

### 11. One Way Slab Vs Two Way Slab: Reinforcement Placing

- In one way slab, main reinforcement is placed in a short span, and distributions reinforcement is placed in a long span.
- In two way slab, the main reinforcement is placed in a short span and a long span.

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- What Is the Strongest Foundation for a House And Their Types
- What Does Hail Damage Look Like on a Roof? (Complete Guide)

### What Is a Slab in Building Construction?

A slab is an important element of the floor system in building construction that transfers loads like gravity loads, dead loads, and live loads to the vertical framing system, such as columns. It is used as both a floor and ceiling in buildings.

### What Are the Functions of a Slab in Construction?

Some main functions of slabs are providing a platform for the structure, transferring loads effectively, providing a flat surface, enabling multi-story building design, acting as a sound and heat insulator, and maintaining privacy.

### What Are the Different Types of Slabs Based on Support Conditions?

The main types of slabs based on support conditions are one-way slabs, two-way slabs, flat slabs, and grid slabs (waffle slabs).

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