What Is Mortar?
According to requirement, definite quantities of cementing material, sand, or surkhi, and water is added and thoroughly mixed to make a paste for binding brick or stone masonry and for providing a protective and finishing covering on the inner and outer faces of construction as plaster.
Mortar serves various functions in civil engineering structures. It provides cohesion between bricks or stones and, when hardened, holds the materials together to make those into a single mass of considerable strength.
Mortar forms an even bed between two courses of masonry works, which helps to transfer the loads from the upper to lower layers.
It provides resistance against weathering action, particularly against rain. It further acts as a medium for uniformly distributing the forces throughout the structure.
A good mortar should be easily workable, i.e., neither too stiff nor too lean or plastic, and should be capable of retaining sufficient water.
It should be capable of offering sufficient resistance to water penetration and should be durable. The mortar should set and harden quickly for faster construction. Further, it should not develop any cracks on drying.
The mortar should not react chemically to the materials being used for jointing. Choice of mortar and its proportion for binding masonry is governed by
Types of Mortar.
- Cement Mortar.
- Lime Mortar.
- Surkhi Mortar.
- Gauged mortar.
- Gypsum Mortar.
What Is Concrete?
Concrete is one of the most important man-made building material used in all major construction projects. Nowadays, concrete plays an important role in the development of infrastructure in numerous ways.
Concrete has three basic ingredients that are aggregate, cement, and water. The role of each ingredient in concrete is different, cement binds the ingredients together, and water gives the concrete viscosity due to which it can be molded in the required shape.
The reaction between the three ingredients gives high strength to the concrete. Concrete is popular because, except cement, all other ingredients of concrete are easily available like different admixtures, aggregate, and water.
Concretes popularity has resulted in several developments and innovations. In the beginning, engineers were struggling to develop a normal concrete, but today they can produce concrete with new characteristics like lightweight, high-performance concrete, ready mixed concrete and self-compacting concrete, etc.
Earlier, only Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was used in forming the concrete, but nowadays, concrete is formed using different pozzolanic material, like fly ash, silica fume, volcanic ash and slag along with cement in concrete.
Moreover, nowadays, along with conventional ingredients of concrete-like cement, aggregate, and water, different important admixtures are also used to give concrete required strength and durability essential for a particular application.
Large progress in the development of the concrete possible because of the unprecedented acceptance of concrete as an ideal building construction material.
A good concrete show both high compressive strength and durability. Durability is a types of long term guarantee of the serviceability of the concrete in masonry structure without degradation in compressive strength.
For increasing the durability of concrete, the use of blended cement in place of normal OPC has been started.
This blended cement is formed by mixing different admixtures like slag, metakaolin fly-ash and silica fumes to the OPC. It increases both the compressive strength and durability of the concrete.
Types of Concrete.
Concrete is formed using a mixed design of the desired workability and durability. In concrete formation, several factors are taken into account as the cost of different additives, aggregates, and types of cement, etc. Broadly concrete can be dived into three important types that are:
- Lime Concrete.
- Cement Concrete.
- Polymer Concrete.
|Mortar, which is a mixture of water, cement, and sand, has a higher water-to-cement ratio than concrete.
|Concrete is a mixture of water, cement, sand just like mortar. However concrete also has gravel and other coarse aggregates that makes it stronger and more durable.
|Mortar is made from cement, sand, and water.
|Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand, aggregates and water
|Mortar is less durable than concrete.
|Due to its composing elements it is much stronger as compared to the former.
|Has to be replaced every 25-50 years hence not practical for use.
|Works intact for a really long time and hence finds application in several purposes.
|A less strong, thick mixture, less durable as the latter.
|Thinner, stronger more durable as compared to the former.
|Best used as a bonding element, for example, glue together bricks or such.
|Best used for support such as beams walls and other building foundations i.e. structural purposes.
|The water to cement ratio is higher in a mortar and hence acts as perfect glue to bonding materials like brick.
|Low water to cement ratio making it an unfit bonding material.
|Mortar finds application as a bonding element.
|Concrete finds application in structural and decorative purposes like beams, fireplaces, walls etc.
|Used as the glue to hold bricks, blocks, etc. toghether
|Used for building: Foundation, Slabs, Patios, & Masonry
|Various types available for specific applications
|Most Flexible forming into any mold & rock hard