Introduction of Arches Construction
An Arch is basically a structure that is constructed of a wedge-shaped unit. The inner curve of an arch is known as Intrados and the outer curve of the arch is known as Extrados.
The main function of the arches is to support the load of the portion of the wall which is situated above the openings. In this article, you will get to know the types of arches construction which are generally used in the construction of various structures.
Construction of the arches are required where the span between the two supports is more and the load coming on the supports are heavy. Arches are also used as an Architectural element which will help to improve the aesthetical view of the structure.
Types of Arches Construction
The archers are classified on the following factors
According to Shape
- Pointed Shape Arch.
- Horseshoe Shape Arch.
- Flat Arch.
- Segmental Arch.
- Semi Circular Arch.
- Venetian Arch.
- Semi-Elliptical Arch.
- Stilted Arch.
According to Type of Material Used for Construction
- Stone Arches.
- Brick Arches.
- Concrete Arches.
According to Number of Center’s
- One Centered Arches.
- Two Centered Arches.
- Three Centered Arches.
- Four Centered Arches.
- Five Centered Arches.
The detailed explanation of the classification of types of Arches are as follows.
1. Classification of Arches According to Shape
1.a. Pointed Shape Arch
The pointed-shaped arches are also known as the Gothic arch. The pointed shape arch has two arcs of the circle which meets at the apex and forms a triangle.
1.b. Horseshoe Shape Arch
The name of this arch is given horseshoe arch because it’s shape is like a horseshoe that curves more than the semicircle. The horseshoe arches are generally used for architectural provisions.
1.c. Flat Arch
The Flat arch forms an equilateral triangle with Intrados as a base at an angle of 60 degrees. The Flat arch is generally used for the construction of light load structures.
The Extrados in the Flat arches is horizontal and Flat. The intrados is also Flat and given a slight rise of camber of about 10 to 15 mm.
1.d. Segmental Arch
The segmented arch is a type of arch whose circular arc is less than 180 degrees. This type of article known as scheme arch. The segmental arch is one of the strongest arches which has a good ability to resist thrust.
The Romans were the first who developed the segmental arch. This type of purchase generally used in the construction of residential windows and doors within the 20th century.
1.e. Semi Circular Arch
In the semicircular arch, the centre will lie on the spring line. In the semicircular arch, the thrust transferred to the abutment is in the vertical direction.
1.f. Venetian Arch
The Venetian arch is a three-centered arch. It is a form of a pointed arch that has a deeper depth at the crown.
1.g. Semi Elliptical Arch
Semi elliptical arch has a shape of a semi ellipse which has either 3 or 5 centers. The semi-elliptical arch is also known as the basket-handle arch.
1.h. Stilted Arch
Stilted art the type of art in which the curve begins above the impost line. This arch consists of a semicircular arch with two vertical portions at springings. The centre of the stilted arch lies on the horizontal line.
1.i. Relieving Arch
This type of arches is constructed above the Flat arch. The main function of the Relieving arch is to provide greater strength. The ends of this arch should be carried sufficiently into the abutments.
2. Classification of Arches According to Type of Material Used for Construction
2.a. Stone Arches
The stone arches are also sub-classified into two types which are as follows
2.a.1. Ashlar Arches
In the construction of the arches, the stones are cut into the proper shape and dressed properly. The joints are filled properly with the help of cement mortar so that proper bonding should be achieved. The Ashlar stones are also used in the construction of the Flat arches.
2.a.2. Rubble Arches
The Rubble arches are used for the construction of arches up to the span of 1m. These types of spans are made of rubber stones that are hammered and dressed properly. The rubble arches are weak and generally used for inferior work only.
2.b. Brick Arches
Brick arches are one of the common types of arches which are used in construction. This type of art that constructed with the help of ordinary bricks. Cement mortar is used in the construction of the brick arches.
The brick arches are classified into three types
2.b.1. Rough Brick Arch
The Rock brick arches are usually wedged in shape. This type of arches is constructed where high accuracy for finishing is not required.
2.b.2. Fine Axed Brick Arch
The Fine Axed arches are constructed by setting bricks into the desired shape. In the case of the construction of Fine axed brick arches, the bricks are cut into wedge-shaped properly any three generally used where the Fine work is required.
The finished surface of this type of arches gives a very aesthetical appearance.
2.b.3. Gauged Brick Arches
This type of arches are very expensive in construction and the bricks which are used in this type of arches should have fine dressing. Construction of the gauged brick arches required skilled workmanship for its construction.
2.c. Concrete Arches
2.c.1. Monolithic Concrete Block Arches
Monolithic concrete arches originally used for the longer spans. Monolithic concrete block arches generally constructed from the cast in situ concrete.
It is necessary that the curing of the monolithic concrete block should be done for 14 to 28 days.
2.c.2. Precast Concrete Block Arches
These types of arches are constructed with the help of precast concrete blocks. The precast concrete blocks are available in the exact shape and sizes which are required for the construction of the arches.
In case of the requirements of the keystone, the special type of moulds is prepared for the construction of the precast concrete block arches.
in the construction of the precast concrete blocks, the 1:2:4 ratio is used. Because of the exact shape and size of the precast concrete blocks, it will give a very good view.
3. Classification of the Arches Based on Number of Centre’s
3.a. One Centered Arches
This type of arches has only one unique centre. The types of arches which comes under the category of types of arches are semicircular arches, Flat arches, horseshoe arches, and segmental arches, etc.
3.b. Two Centered Arches
This type of purchase has two centres. The pointed arches comes under the category of two centered arches. Semi elliptical arches also come under this category.
3.c. Three Centered Arches
These types of arches have three centres. The elliptical arches and equilateral arches come under the category of three centered arches.
3.d. Four Centered Arches
Venetian arches comes under the category of four centre arches which has a total of four centres.
3.e. Five Centered Arches
Five centre arches have a total of five centres and it helps in getting a good semi-elliptical shape.