Building Construction Process Two Main Parts Divided as Below.
1. Pre-construction Steps:
- Acquire Land
- Seek Technical / Consultant
- Design Process
- Prepare Estimation and Budgets
- Building Permits
- Approach a Contractor
- Building Warranty Period
2. During Building Construction Steps:
- Site Clearance
- Plinth Beam or Slab
- Superstructure Column and Beam
- Brick Masonry Work
- Lintel Over Door Window
- Floor Slab or Roof Structure
- Door and Window Framing and Fixations
- Electrical and Plumbing
- Exterior Finishing
- Internal Finishes
- Woodwork and Fixture Fittings
- Boundary Wall and Gates
- Hardscaping and Landscaping
- Punch List
- Warranty Period
The above main parts in sub-parts. These sub-parts related to his construction possess.
Building Construction Process from Start to Finish Pdf: Click Here
Sub Building Construction Steps with Main Building Construction
1. Pre-construction Steps
In this building construction process first step. This per construction possesses some points like plot hiring, planting, budget, consult hiring, contractor, Design process, etc.
a. Acquire Land
It is the main step in building construction. Search for the location for the building, which is most appropriate for building construction purposes. Be careful while selecting land that has all the desired facilities available nearby and should be free from all land-related issues.
It’s suggested that do prior data collection before buying land either by doing research online or seek help / Consultant from real estate agents or concerned persons regarding the effective cost of the same.
b. Seek Technical/Consultant
After selecting proper land for building, seek the help / constantan of a professional architect to create building designs, and take advice.
An architect prepare plan according to building requirement, a number of flats, shops based on your requirements also budget.
Then after architect consult with a structural engineer and MEP engineer for details of the reinforcements and other detail for use, how deep your foundation will be, the size of gravel to be used, column width, electrical, plumbing, etc.
c. Design Process
Before finding/meeting up with an architect, make a rough requirement list for your home. This process must cover the basic concepts of your home, like living space, no: of bedrooms you would like, Guest bedrooms, hall, kitchen, Baths, where you want the stairs, car porch, Garden/landscaping/Pond, etc.
You should involve your family also, ask their likes and suggestions. Visit your friends, talk to neighbors about the pros and cons of their property, and what they would like to improve. Stages of work in a glance.
d. Prepare Estimation and Budgets
Building construction involves a huge quantity of material and budget. After planning and structural detailing finished, these details are transferred into the building estimator.
The building estimation will estimate the material quantity, quantity of different items of works, and prepare an abstract sheet that shows the cost of building construction.
If financial resources are limited, we will need to seek pre-approval for loans in advance, or else you might end up in a cash crunch situation.
e. Building Permits
This is important work to do after the project is ready to be executed. For that, we must take permission from different boards before you can go for the construction, like this municipal, airport authority, pollution control, etc.
Following are the list of document project required before applying for permission. This document may differ from state to state, but a few are essential for every building construction work.
- Land Survey
- Soil test report (SBC report)
- All drawing like Plan, Elevation, Section
- Structural Certificate
- Architect Certificate
f. Approach a Contractor
A contractor for construction needs to be chosen carefully because it’s a major factor for securing building construction quality and timely construction of work.
Pre investigation has to be done about the builder before handing work. From the contract document, all of the work-related details must be clearly stated.
The contract document must cover layout and work details along with the cost payment methods and time scales. The condition of the contract ought to be thoroughly checked before signing a final deal.
g. Building Warranty Period
Once the project is complete and handover into the owner, the contractor specifies a warranty period.
In this period, any defects found in the building constructed have to be fixed and replaced with the contractor in charge.
The warranty for appliances and materials are obtained from manufacturers and supplier
2. During Building Construction Steps
In this building construction process first step. This per construction possesses some points like site clearance, Exaction, brick-masonry, plastering, as like different types of construction, etc.
More detail point as per below point
a. Site Clearance
Before starting any construction work, it becomes necessary to clear the place from the unwanted grass, Boulder, etc.
In case of any hill like appearance on the ground, that also has to be cleared of the excess earth, and when there’s a pit, it’s required to be filled up. This total job is known as site clearance.
Following the site clearance, the layout of this structure in the site could be planned with respect to the given foundation plans. Begin earth excavation and take trenches accordingly.
A foundation is the lower portion of building a structure that transfers its gravity loads into the earth. Foundation work is done based on drawings provided by the architect. I.e., the size of the foundation, depth, width, and length, etc. and kind of foundation (Rubble Packing or Raft and beams, etc. )
d. Plinth Beam or Slab
After the foundation work is completed, ground beam formwork preparation has been started and poured with concrete. Over the plinth beam, masonry work has been started. And space between foundation and plinth beam filled with soil.
e. Superstructure Column and Beam
The superstructure is the portion above the plinth level of the building. The main component of the superstructure is a beam and column. The columns are built up to the slab level, and the frame for further construction is prepared.
f. Brick Masonry Work
As beam and column framework completed, masonry work is started with various materials like fly ash bricks, concrete blocks, bricks, etc. according to building drawing.
Masonry work is done with a cement mortar mix. It’s a mixture of cement & sand. During this carefully and as per drawing, gaps are laid for windows and doors during the masonry work.
g. Lintel Over Door Window
The lintel is constructed on the Window and door to support the masonry work over it. After this, further masonry work is done.
h. Floor Slab or Roof Structure
Then the formwork is started to construct slab resting on the column and beam. Over slab formwork, slab reinforcement is put according to slab detailed drawing.
Plastering work can commence after the initial lighting and electrical plumbing work was completed. Cement plaster is generally used with 12 mm thickness, and sometimes it may be of 20 mm thickness.
On completion of brickwork, plastering is to be done.
- To make the building structurally strong
- To protect it in the effect of weather, and
- To provide it an attractive look.
j. Door and Window Framing and Fixations
After that door and window frames have been fixed at their specified position given in drawing.
It is done with cement primer after initial wiring work, and plumbing works are done.
i. Electrical and Plumbing
As we know that buildings have been constructed with a clean finish in which electrical and plumbing work isn’t visible.
They’re installed in the walls and slabs such that they are concealed and not visible after the finishing work is done. The pipe and point end left out this later. They may be finished with the electric fitting and plumbing fixtures.
j. Exterior Finishing
After this work is completed, outside plastering and finishing work are started. Waterproofing can also be done to prevent rising dampness from the wall. External cladding may also be done to enhance the elevation of the house.
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k. Internal Finishes
Internal walls are plaster with a smooth finish, and flooring is done with tiles. Later on, the walls are stained or painted.
l. Woodwork and Fixture Fittings
By following the above step, almost construction work is completed and then after furniture work is started. Side by side, electrical fitting, switchboard, and plumbing fittings are complete in the kitchen and bathrooms areas too.
m. Boundary Wall and Gates
Compound walls must be built ideally just before beginning major construction activities. It’s to protect the site, and the material stored at the storage shed, in the outside environments, and from thieves. Latest gate designs.
n. Hardscaping and Landscaping
Once your builder has completed your home, there is still the”hardscaping” to be done – the driveway, patio and walkways, and then the”landscaping” plan could be put into action – the irrigation system, laying of grass bed and planting of trees, as well as outdoor lighting, to be considered.
o. Punch List
When the project is complete, the contractor inspects the whole work one by one and make a punch list.
These structural units or areas that weren’t constructed properly or are below the quality level is listed in the punch list. This is later corrected by the contractor in charge.
p. Warranty Period
When the project is complete and handover into the owner, the contractor specifies a warranty period.
Within this period, any defects found in the building constructed have to be fixed and replaced with the contractor in charge. The warranty for appliances and materials are obtained from manufacturers and suppliers.