16 Types of Building Components | How a Building Is Constructed | 19 Different Types of Building Construction Phases

All About Building Components

16 Types of Building Components

Components of Building are as follows.

Building Compantan

  • Substructure.
    • Bedding for Footing.
    • Footing.
  • Superstructure.
    • Plinth.
    • Damp Proof Course.
    • Plinth Beam.
    • Floor.
    • Brick Wall.
    • Sill Level.
    • Window.
    • Lintels and Chajjas.
    • Column.
    • RCC Slab.
    • Parapet Wall.
    • Coping.
    • Weathering Course.
    • Stairs.

#1. Substructure:

The substructure is the part of the building that is underneath the ground, while the superstructure is everything that is above ground.

Substructure. The purpose of the substructure of a building is to transfer loads of the superstructure to the soil that is underneath.

The substructure are as follows.

  • Bedding for Footing.
  • Footing.

#1.1. Bedding for Footing-

Under every house is a foundation, and under most footing is Bedding for Footing. Most of the time we take footings for granted, and usually we can.

For typical soils, a common 4- or 5 inch-wide footing can more than handle the relatively lightweight of an ordinary house.

Also, Read: How to Excavation Calculation in Excel Sheet | What Is Excavation | Important Point of Excavation as per IS Code 

#1.2. Footing-


The footing is important to uniformly spread the whole weight of the structure on the ground in just such a way which no destructive settlement actually occurs.

The structures therefore need to be established on a strong Footing.

Also, Read: Difference Between Footing and Foundation | What is Footing and Foundation

#2. Superstructure:

The superstructure is that part of the building which is mainly above the ground, unlike the substructure which is mainly below ground.

The Superstructure are as follows.

#2.1. Plinth-


Generally, the plinth is built slightly well above the ground floor sometime after the foundation. It lifts the ground just above floor level and stops seawater from entering the house.

Also, Read: What Is Plinth | What Is Plinth Protection | Purpose of Plinth Protection

#2.2. Damp Proof Course-


The damp proof course is often a coating of waterproofing substance including such asphalt and waterproof cement. The structures are constructed well above DPC.

DPC stops groundwater for increasing to the floors. Wetness decreases the strength of walls which produces unhealthful living environments. Thus it impacts painting as well as plaster which raises repair costs.

There is no need for DPC where a plinth beam is built since the plinth beam is still operating like a DPC.

Also, Read: Requirements of Good DPC | Prevention of Dampness: Use of DPC | Methods of Damp proofing

#2.3. Plinth Beam-

Plinth Beam
The plinth beam is built according to the form of construction of the building as well as the condition of the surface. It offers significant stabilization in the region of building settlements or damaged buildings.

Also, Read: What Is Tie Beam | Tie Beam Details | Advantages of Using Tie Beam | Tie Beam Reinforcement | Why Are Use Concrete Tie Beam

#2.4. Floor-

Flooring may be achieved with various materials, yet caution should be taken to ensure that perhaps the floor just below ground is very well compressed.

Flooring is achieved to keep wetness from increasing to the surface and to ensure a firm base which can be held environmentally friendly and tidy.

Also, Read: What Is Flooring | Types of Flooring.

#2.5. Brick Wall-

Brick Wall

The Brick wall is indeed the structural component at which the roof is eventually laid. This may be constructed of various materials, such as bricks, gravel, mud, concrete blocks, lateral blocks, respectively.

Unless the buildings are quite large, the roofs may be supported with columns. The Brick wall offers privacy and enclosures. Walls can offer safety and assurance from natural conditions including wind, rain, and sunlight.

Also, Read: What Is Classification of Bricks | Classification of Bricks Different Base 

#2.6. Sill Level-

Sill Lvel

Sill is the base of the window i.e. the level from the floor of the room from which the window starts (moving upwards).

The window finishes at the top at the lintel level. A window sill may be equal to or greater than the width of the brickwork beneath it.

Also, Read: Difference Between Plinth Level, Sill Level, and Lintel Level.

#2.7. Window-

The windows are an essential part of the house. It also provides light, fresh air, and ventilation in the house. Windows are often arranged, also for the purposes of architectural decoration. It allows light into the room, enhance your wall colours or furniture.

Also, Read: What Is Window | Functions of Windows | Location of Windows | Standard Height of Windows

#2.8. Lintels and Chajjas-

lintel is a structural horizontal block that spans the space or opening between two vertical supports. It can be a decorative architectural element or a combined ornamented structural item. It is often found over portals, doors, windows, and fireplaces.

Also, Read: What Is Lintel Beam | Lintel Beam Size | Types of Lintel Beam

#2.9. Column-


A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member.

Also, Read: What Are Columns | Different Types of RCC Columns | Round Column Vs Square Column | Pillar Vs Column

#2.10. RCC Slab-


A Reinforced Concrete Slab is the one of the most important component in a building. It is a structural element of modern buildings. Slabs are supported on Columns and Beams

Also, Read: RCCFull Form | What Is RCC | Advantages & Disadvantages of Reinforced Cement Concrete | Properties of RCC | What Does RCC Stands for

#2.11. Parapet Wall-

Parapet Wall

A parapet is a barrier that is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, terrace, balcony, walkway, or other structure. The word comes ultimately from the Italian parapetto. The German equivalent Brustung has the same meaning.

Also, Read: What Does Parapet Mean | Types of Parapet Wall | Uses of Parapet Wall

#2.12. Coping-


Offering a complete finish to any parapet wall, Canted Coping is the best solution for a parapet wall condition where a slope must be built. This helps ensure that water drips back towards the roof and not down the front of the building. This system uses a continuous cleat for high wind uplift resistance.

#2.13. Weathering Course-

Weathering Course
Pressed Clay Tile for Weather Proofing the Terrace of Building. Offers protection from rains, water seepage, and thermal insulation from sun. Can withstand the effect of rain and sun to protect and weatherproof your home.

Also, Read: What Is a Brick Bat Coba |  Procedure of Brick Bat Coba Waterproofing | Advantages & Disadvantage of Brick Bat Coba Waterproofing

#2.14. Stairs-


The stairs are a series of steps which are designed to facilitate the ways of landing and takeoff between both the floors as well as the landings.

The apartment and room of a house where the stairs are situated are labeled the stairs. The room or the opening of the stairway is labeled the stairway.

There are many various styles of staircase used during homes, such as RCC stairs, wooden stairs, metal stairs, brick stairs, respectively.

Also, Read: What Is a Flight of Stairs | Types of Stairs | How Many Stairs in a Flight | Some Facts About Stairwells

How a Building Is Constructed?

Construction process of Building components from beginning to end involves no simple task in either form of construction; it may take a lot of capital and investment.

While building construction consumes a lot of effort and is time-consuming, yet the result is a lasting advantage for us. Care must also be taken throughout the building phase.

Until preparing, building projects shall understand essential parts of the construction process of the building components, such as the purposes of this experiment, usefulness, economic competence, a requirement for jobs, etc.

Since this building decision is taken, the preparation process is ongoing. The building method from beginning to end is thoroughly discussed herein. Furthermore, begin with a few preconstruction phases.

Process of Building Construction:

  • The very first step of construction is make sure the ground is graded and prepared right.
  • Next the foundation goes in. Depending on the type of building will determine the type of foundation is installed.
  • Once the foundation is in then comes the framing. This is the skeleton of the structure.
  • A contractor will then drywall the framing and install all the window and doors.
  • Next come the electrical and the plumbing.
  • While that is going on the roof may be finished up.
  • Paint the walls and side the outside and you have a finished building.

Also, Read: How to Building Construction Process Step by Step

Different Types of Building Construction Phases:

Types of Building Construction Phases

  • Pre-Construction Steps.
  • Building Construction Steps.

#1. Pre-Construction Steps-

Pre-Construction Steps are as follows.

  • To Purchase Property or Land.
  • To Check for Technical Assistance.
  • Getting Prepared Estimates and Expenditure.
  • Authorities’ Approval.
  • Approach to the Developer.

#1.1. To Purchase Property or Land-

This is perhaps the most critical step towards the development of houses. Check for its spot of the house that is ideally fit for construction purposes.

Be cautious when choosing land that has all the necessary amenities available in the vicinity and thus should be clear of all land-related problems.

#1.2. To Check for Technical Assistance-

Upon choosing the best land for construction, seek the aid of a competent designer to plan the building as well as seek instructions.

The designer shall draft the design according to the building specifications, the number of apartments, stores on the fact that it is based as well as the expenditure.

And, upon consulting the designer, contact the structural engineer for specifications of the supports that will be used, the depth of the base, the scale of the gravel to use it, the dimensions of the support, etc.

#1.3. Getting Prepared Estimates and Expenditure-

Building design requires an immense volume of material as well as expenditure. After completion of the design including structural data, such description are passed to the construction estimator.

The building estimator will measure the material size, the amount of various work products as well as produce an overview sheet showing the building costs.

#1.4. Authorities’ Approval-

This seems to be critical work to be completed once the proposal is able to be implemented. In order to do this, we must obtain permission from the relevant municipal authority before you would go to the building site.

#1.5. Approach to the Developer-

Builders or contractors for projects must be deliberately selected as this is a crucial element in guaranteeing the effectiveness of building and the prompt construction of works. Prior to actually handing over jobs, a pre-investigation should be evaluated successfully the builder.

#2. Building Construction Step-

Building Construction Step are as follows.

  • Preparation or Leveling of Site.
  • Pcc and Excavation.
  • Foundation.
  • Plinth Beam and Slab.
  • Columns.
  • Brick Masonry’s Operate.
  • Door Window Lintel Gaps.
  • Floor or Roof Structure.
  • Door Glass Framing and Fixing.
  • Electrical and Plumbing.
  • Exterior Finishing.
  • Terrace and Roof Finish.
  • Internal Finishing.
  • Woodwork and Repairing Fittings.

#2.1. Preparation or Leveling of Site-

The building site should be swept until the job is done. This task involved clearing the trees, the waste as well as the grading of the land.

#2.2. Pcc and Excavation-

The base of the building ground is unearthed by means of excavation machinery according to the house size defined in the designs.

Throughout this foundation trenches, a sheet of PCC is deposited in the dug section even before reinforcing for the foundation are placed.

Also, Read: Rate Analysis of Excavation in Earthwork

#2.3. Foundation-

The structure on the foundations is the lowest portion of the structure which is in contact with the ground. The structure is moved from the superstructure to soil but must be incredibly heavy to withstand the load.

Just after construction of the PCC base is initiated, working on reinforcing is begins. The lower step of the foundation should be tested before it has been concreted.

The remainder of the room between the base is packed with soil.

Also, Read: Functions of Foundation | Requirements of Good Foundation | Types of Foundation | Types of Shallow Foundations | Types of Deep Foundations

#2.4. Plinth Beam and Slab-

Once the foundation project is finished, the planning of the beam begins and filled with concrete. From over plinth beam, construction method has begun. And the gap between both the base and the plinth beam was packed with soil.

Also, Read: Bond Beam Block vs. Lintel Block | What Is Bond Beam | What Is a Lintel Block | Bond Beam Detail | Advantages & Disadvantages of Bond Beam Blocks

#2.5. Columns-

The column is the part just above basement floor of the house. A column as well as a beam are the core elements of the superstructure. The columns are developed to the slab stage and also the frame is designed for some further building.

Also, Read: How to Load Calculation on Column, Beam, Wall & Slab

#2.6. Brick Masonry’s Operate-

As only a column as well as beam frame finished masonry construction is begun using various materials such as cement, concrete blocks, fly ash bricks, respectively according to the drawing of the house.

The masonry task is undertaken using a combination of cement mortars. It’s a combination of cement as well as sand.

Throughout that time, deliberately and according to design, openings are placed for windows and doors throughout brick masonry.

Also Read: Brick Masonry | 6 Types of Bricks | Types of Brick Masonry Work | 4 Types of Brick Bond | 5 Classification of Bricks Based on Size Modification

#2.7. Door Window Lintel Gaps-

The lintel is placed mostly on door as well as the window to assist the masonry function. Since this additional masonry process has been performed.

#2.8. Floor or Roof Structure-

So the formwork continues to create a slab that sits mostly on the column as well as the beam. The slab reinforcing is mounted over the slab formwork according to the comprehensive design slab.

Also, Read: What Is MDF | Advantages of MDF | Disadvantages of MDF | MDF Properties | Application of MDF | How to Waterproof MDF | What Is MDF Made of

#2.9. Door Glass Framing and Fixing-

Thereafter, the frames of the door and window are set to the stated location provided in the illustration.

Also, Read: Glass Block Floor | Advantages of Glass Blocks | Disadvantages of Glass Blocks | Uses of Glass Blocks | Types of Glass Block | Glass Block for Windows

#2.10. Electrical and Plumbing-

Structures are designed with a smooth finish wherein plumbing and electrical installation is not noticeable.

These were mounted with in walls as well as slabs so that they will be covered but not noticeable until the finished work has been completed.

The ends of the stage as well as the end of the pipe remaining such that the electrical fittings and plumbing fixtures could be completed afterward.

Also, Read: 20 Types of Plumbing Pipes for Different Use

#2.11. Exterior Finishing-

When this work has been finished, the exterior plastering as well as finishing process is begun. Waterproof membrane is often used to avoid increasing wetness in the wall. External cladding also may be encouraged to raise the height of the building.

Also, Read: Sealing Brick Work | Advantages of Brick Sealer | Interior Brick Sealer | Exterior Brick Sealer | How to Seal Brick Wall | Best Brick Water Repellent Sealer

#2.12. Terrace and Roof Finish-

A waterproof membrane is performed at the top of the slab to avoid any leaks in the slab. Normally, the tiling of the terrazzo is achieved to keep the slab from having a weathering impact.

Also, Read: Hip Roof Vs Gable Roof | What Is Gable Roof | What Is Hip Roof

#2.13. Internal Finishing-

The interior walls were plaster with such a clean texture and the flooring is lined in tiles. After, the walls are stained or textured.

Also, Read: What Are Walls | What Is Interior Walls | Types of Interior Wall Materials | Types of Wall Construction | Types of Load Bearing Wall

#2.14.Woodwork and Repairing Fittings-

Through adopting above mentioned stage, more or less the building project is performed and afterward the furniture work is begun. Besides each other, electrical connections, switchboards, and plumbing fixtures are all finished in the bathrooms including kitchen areas.

Also, Read: Top 15+ Best Plywood Brands in India


House Structure Parts Names:

  • Foundation.
  • Plinth.
  • Walls and columns.
  • Floors.
  • Lintels and chajjas.
  • Roof.
  • Doors and windows.
  • Stairs and lifts.
  • Finishing work (plastering and painting).
  • Building services.
  • Fencing and external works.

How a Building Is Constructed?

The very first step of construction is make sure the ground is graded and prepared right. Next the foundation goes in. Depending on the type of building will determine the type of foundation is installed. Once the foundation is in then comes the framing.

Building a House Step by Step-

Step 1. Prepare construction site and pour a foundation.

Step 2. Complete rough framing.

Step 3. Complete rough plumbing, electrical HVAC.

Step 4. Install insulation.

Step 5. Complete drywall and interior fixtures, start exterior finishes.

Step 6. Finish interior trim, install exterior walkways and driveway.

Step 7. Install hard surface flooring, countertops; complete exterior grading.

Step 8. Finish mechanical trims; install bathroom fixtures.

Step 9. Install mirrors, shower doors; finish flooring, exterior landscaping.

Step 10. Final walk-through.

1 thought on “16 Types of Building Components | How a Building Is Constructed | 19 Different Types of Building Construction Phases”

  1. Hi,
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