What Is Plumbing?
It is a system of pipes and fixtures installed in a building for the distribution and use of drinkable (potable) water and the removal of waterborne wastes.
It is usually distinguished from water and sewage systems that serve a group of buildings or a city.
Difference Between One pipe, Two Pipe, Single Stack, and Single Stack Partilly Ventilated.
|Two Pipe System
|One Pipe System
|Single Stack System
|Single Stack Partially Ventilated System.
|4 pipes our sullage pipe one soil pipe two separate vent pipe or anti siphonage pipe
|One main vertical pipe set ventilated + a separate vent pipe (2 pipes)
|Only one pipe i.e. waste pipe without any separate ventilation.
|Two pipes in a single pipe system w.c. is ventilated thrush separate vent pipe.
|Best and most improved system (excellent)
|Large no. of pipes i.e., costly
|More costly than partially single-stack
|Branch connection reduced cost less compared to the single pipe system
|Large building multistoried building
|Medium size building
|Small size building
|Medium size building
|Less use of trap, favoured.
|Require safeguards to make drainage effective and adequate water seal.
|Same as one pipe system.
|Same as one pipe system.
Systems of Plumbing.
The principal parts of the drainage system which can be called its elements are the traps, the vents, the drainage pipe, and the building drain and sewer the rain-water gutters and leaders, etc.
A soil pipe in a plumbing system acts as a drainage pipe that carried or is designed to carry human excrement.
If a pipe is vertical it is called a stack and if it is horizontal it is called a branch. A waste pipe carried liquid wastes that do not include human excrement.
Vent pipes, with few exceptions, are attached to the drainage piped near the traps, and between the trap and the sewer for purpose of admitting air or taking air away from the drainage pipes.
The vent pipes should lead to the outside air at some distance from any other opening into the building. Ventilating and drainage pipes at distance from any other opening into the building.
Ventilating and drainage pipes at a point near the trap assist in prevailing the trap seal from being broken by air pressure in the drainage pipes preventing the trap seal from being broken by air pressure in the drainage pipes.
The following are the main systems of plumbing for the building drainage.
- Two Pipe System.
- One Pipe System.
- Single Stack System.
- Single Stack Partilly Ventilated System.
1. Two Pipe System.
This is the most common system used in India. This method provided an ideal solution, where it is not possible to fix the fixtures closely.
One pipe collects the foul soil and water closet wastes, and the second pipe collects the water from the kitchen, bathrooms, house washings, etc.
The soil pipes are directly connected to the manhole/drain, where is the waste pipes arc connected through a fully ventilated gully trap.
- The gully trap receives the bath, basin, and sink wastes. It provides aerial disconnection of these wastes from the drain air.
- The man soil vent pipe rises to above the level of the eves and is so placed so that gases leaving it cannot be a nuisance or a danger to health.
- A vent cowl of cast iron or other material unaffected by corrosion at the top of the vent pipe to prevent nesting birds.
- A cast-iron duck foot bend is preferably used at the bottom.
2. One Pipe System.
In this system only one main pipe is used which collects both the foul soil waste as well as waste from the building. The main pipe is directly connected to the manhole/drain.
The provision of waste pipes and gully traps are completely eliminated. All the traps of the water closets, basins, sinks, etc are fully ventilated and connected to the ventilation pipes.
3. Single Stack System.
This is similar to one pipe system but without the provision of ventilation.
The single-stack system is a one-pipe system from which, subject to the observance of certain rules, all or most of the trap ventilating pipes are omitted.
4. Single Stack Partilly Ventilated System.
This system is a combination of one pipe and a single stack system. It provided only one pipe to collect all types of wastewater foul as well as not so foul.
A relief vent pipe is provided for ventilation only the water closet traps.
How to Choose of Plumbing System?
For the disposal of sanitary wastes from a building, a two-pipe system of plumbing is considered to be the safest as compared to other systems of plumbing but this is the costlier system.
Where one pipe system or partially ventilated one pipe system is to be used it may require specific prior permission of the administrative authority.
Conventional (two pipes) fully ventilated drainage system for multi-storeyed buildings has been criticized time and again, with its requirement of four main stacks one for soil, one for waste, and two others for ventilation.
Attempts have been made to improve upon the system. thereby achieving the economy without loss of efficacy.
Full ventilated one pipe system, in which all the sanitary appliances are connected to the same stack leading directly to the inspection chamber and all traps are ventilated through a common vent pipe to preserve water seal has come into favor because it has economic and also hygienic advantages over the conventional arrangements.
However, saving is not that pronounced as is expected to be, since a complete ventilation system is still required.
Single stack system (SS) basically a one-pipe system minus ventilation pipework, has gained enormous popularity in recent times and saves so much of material and about its utility is already well established.
Central building research institute, Roorkee conducted the experiments on single-stack system of plumbing and concluded the following results
- The single stack system offers a compact layout. It avoids gully traps and is thus free from insect nuisance and obstruction etc.
- It saves 60% and 4% in a material and overall cost of piping, labour respectively, as compared to the conventional two-pipe system in a four-storeyed building.
- There is no necessity of any special water seal traps in the appliances other than WC when they are connected through floor traps through the stack.
- The depth of water seal in the floor traps needs noti be deeper than conventional traps for a single stack system up to four stories.
- The stack and W.C. branches should be 100 mm dia. other waste branches from floor traps should be 75 mm dia. The slope of the branches shall not be flatter than 1:50.
The CBRI (Central Building Research Institute) Rookie, has recommended the use of one pipe system in the modern multi-storeyed building due to its low cost.
The single stack system may be used up to 5 story building efficiently as recommended by CBRI, Rookie.
Also Read: Drainage System Parts