Cement Civil Concrete Design Soil Mechanics

Density of Cement Sand and Aggregate | Cement Density | Sand Density | Aggregate Density | list of Density

Density of Cement, Sand and Aggregate

Density is also called the unit weight of a substance. It is represented by a symbol called a line (p). Density represents the degree of compactness of a material. If the material is of higher density, it is more compacted material.

The density of construction materials is their Mass per unit volume of materials. It is expressed in kg / m3 or lb / ft3 and shows the compactness of the construction material.

The density can be expressed as

  • p = m/V = 1/v


  • p = density [kg / m3], [slugs / ft3]
  • m = mass [kg], [slugs]
  • V = volume [m3], [ft3]
  • v = specific volume [m3 / kg], [ft3 / slug]
  • Conversion: 1 kg / m3 = 0.624 lb / ft3

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Cement Density


A cement is a binder, a substance used in construction that hardens, hardens and adheres to other materials to join them together. Cement is rarely used on its own, but to bond sand and gravel.

The cement mixed with fine aggregate produces mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel, produces concrete.

First, density is the ratio of mass to volume. So it can be indicated in terms of kg / m3, which is 1440kg / m3 for cement. Therefore, density is found for materials and not for certain quantities.

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Sand Density


The Density of Sand utility returns sand density based on sand conditions (wet/dry in bulk / packaged).

The density of the sand is affected if the sand is compacted (bulged) or loose and if it is wet or dry. When packed, the grains of sand are forced to form a narrower formation, and more matter is in the volume.

When the sand is wet, the water is in the sand, also affecting the total matter in the volume. The average density of the different sand conditions is as follows:

  • Loose sand: 1442 kg / m3. It is dry sand that has been moved or agitated to loosen the natural packaging process.
  • Dry sand: 1602 kg / m3. It is sand in its undisturbed natural form, where it has been partially compacted by rain and gravity over time, but is now dry
  • Packed sand: 1682 kg / m3. Sand that has been packed manually or mechanically (compacted)
  • Wet sand: 1922 kg / m3. This is the sand that has been in a natural and naturally compressed environment that is now wet.
  • Wet packed sand: 2082 kg / m3. This is compacted sand that is also almost saturated with water.

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Aggregate Density


The aggregate is an aggregation of non-metallic minerals obtained in the form of particles and can be processed and used in the construction of civil and road engineering.

Aggregates Are Mainly Classified into Two Categories:

The fine aggregate is natural sand that has been washed and sieved to remove particles larger than 5 mm, and the coarse aggregate is a gravel that has been crushed, washed and sieved so that the particles vary from 5 to 50 mm in size. The fine and coarse aggregate is delivered separately.

As they need to be sieved, a prepared mixture of fine and coarse aggregate is more expensive than the natural all-in aggregate.

The reason for using a mixture of fine and coarse aggregate is that by combining them in the correct proportions, concrete with very few voids or spaces can be made, and this reduces the amount of comparatively expensive cement needed to produce strong concrete.

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Bulk Density of the Aggregate

The apparent density or unit weight of an aggregate is the Mass or weight of the aggregate needed to fill a container with a specified unit volume.

Bulk density = Mass / volume

Main features:

If the volume is one unit, Bulk density = Mass.

Unit in kg / m3 or lb / ft3.

In this definition, the volume contains the aggregates and the voids between the aggregate particles.

The approximate apparent density of the aggregate that is commonly used in normal-weight concrete is between 1200-1750 kg / m3 (75-110 lb / ft3).

Here, the standard test method for determining the apparent density of aggregates is presented in the ASTM C 29 (AASHTO T 19) standard.

The relative density of aggregate

The relative density (specific gravity) of an aggregate is the ratio between its Mass and the Mass of an equal volume of water.

Relative density = Mass of the aggregate / Mass with an equal volume of water

Main features:

Most aggregates have a relative density between 2.4-2.9 with a corresponding particle density (Mass) of 2400-2900 kg / m3 (150-181 lb / ft3).

Here, for coarse aggregates, the standard test method was explained in ASTM C 127 (AASHTO), and, for fine aggregates, the standard test method was explained in ASTM C 128 (AASHTO).

The relative density of an aggregate can be determined on an oven-dried basis or on a dry saturated surface (SSD).

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Density Values of Different Building Materials

Density also decides the sinking property of a material. It is decided by knowing the density of the liquid. If the material has a lower density than the liquid, it will float on the surface of a liquid. If it is denser than the liquid, it will sink.

If two different materials have the same weight, but the density of both can be different. The lower dense material occupies more volume than the higher dense material.

The value of the density of the building material will also help to discover the amount of material needed for a specific space.

For example, water has a density of 1000kg / m3; if we put bamboo wood (350kg / m3) in the water, it will float on the water surface in the same way; if we drop a brick (1700 kg.m3), it will sink into the water.

The density of different building materials is listed below.

There are many building materials used in construction. In the table below, we try to cover the unit weight of the building materials that are most commonly used on the construction site.

Construction Materials Density (Kg / m3) Density (lb / ft3)
Cement 1440 89.8
Cement mortar 2080 129.8
Sandstone 2000 124.8
Sludge 2100 131
Concrete (PCC) 2400 149.8
Concrete (RCC) 2500 156
Water 1000 62.43
Ferry 170 10.6
Bamboo 300 — 400 18.7 – 25
Pine 370 – 530 23 – 33
Cedar 380 23.7
Aspen 420 26.2
Willow wood 420 26.2
African mahogany 495 – 850 31 – 53
Honduras mahogany 545 34
American redwood 450 28
European redwood 510 31.8
Fir (Canadian) 450 28
Fir (Sitka) 450 28
Aphromosia 705 44
apple 660 – 830 1.2 – 51.8
Gray (black) 540 33.7
Gray (white) 670 41.8
Birch 670 41.8
Ebony 960-1120 59.9 – 69.9
Elm 600 – 815 37.4 – 50.8
Iroko 655 40.9
Larch 590 36.8
Maple 755 47.1
Carvalho 590 – 930 36.8 – 58
Teak 630 – 720 3 9.3 – 44.9
Sycamore 590 36.8
Lignum vitae 1280 – 1370 79.9 -85.5
Sandy soil 1800 112.3
Clay soil 1900 118.6
Gravel soil 2000 124.8
Chalk 2100 131
Shale 2500 156
Sedimentary rocks 2600 162.3
Metamorphic rocks 2700 168.5
Igneous (felsic) rocks 2700 168.5
Igneous (mafic) rocks 3000 187.2
Bricks 1500-1800 93.6-112.3
Asphalt 721 45
Lima 640 39.9
Lime mortar 1760 109.8
Steel 7850 490
Stainless steel 7480-8000 466.9- 499.4
Aluminum 2739 170.9
Magnesium 1738 108.4
Cobalt 8746 545.9
Nickel 8908 556.1
Tin 7280 454.4
Lead 11340 707.9
Zinc 7135 445.4
Cast iron 7208 449.9
Copper 8940 558.1
Iron 7850 490
Glass 2580 161

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