Density of Cement Sand and Aggregate | Cement Density | Sand Density | Aggregate Density | list of Density

Important Point

Density of Cement, Sand and Aggregate

Density is also called the unit weight of a substance. It is represented by a symbol called a line (p). Density represents the degree of compactness of a material. If the material is of higher density, it is more compacted material.

The density of construction materials is their Mass per unit volume of materials. It is expressed in kg / m3 or lb / ft3 and shows the compactness of the construction material.

The density can be expressed as

  • p = m/V = 1/v

Where

  • p = density [kg / m3], [slugs / ft3]
  • m = mass [kg], [slugs]
  • V = volume [m3], [ft3]
  • v = specific volume [m3 / kg], [ft3 / slug]
  • Conversion: 1 kg / m3 = 0.624 lb / ft3

Also, read: Singly Reinforced vs Doubly Reinforced Beam | What Is Singly Reinforced Beam | What Is Doubly Reinforced Beam

Density of Cement

Cement

A cement is a binder, a substance used in construction that hardens, hardens and adheres to other materials to join them together. Cement is rarely used on its own, but to bond sand and gravel.

The cement mixed with fine aggregate produces mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel, produces concrete.

First, density is the ratio of mass to volume. So it can be indicated in terms of kg / m3, which is 1440kg / m3 for cement. Therefore, density is found for materials and not for certain quantities.

Also, read: Basic Plumbing System | Drainage System | Supply and Drainage Subsystems

Sand Density

river-sand

The Density of Sand utility returns sand density based on sand conditions (wet/dry in bulk / packaged).

The density of the sand is affected if the sand is compacted (bulged) or loose and if it is wet or dry. When packed, the grains of sand are forced to form a narrower formation, and more matter is in the volume.

Natural sand i.e. locally available River sand having a bulk density of 1.71 kg/m3 was used for the construction (specific gravity is 2.65). This sand has the Fineness modulus of 5.24.

When the sand is wet, the water is in the sand, also affecting the total matter in the volume. The average density of the different sand conditions is as follows:

  • Loose sand: 1442 kg / m3. It is dry sand that has been moved or agitated to loosen the natural packaging process.
  • Dry sand: 1602 kg / m3. It is sand in its undisturbed natural form, where it has been partially compacted by rain and gravity over time, but is now dry
  • Packed sand: 1682 kg / m3. Sand that has been packed manually or mechanically (compacted)
  • Wet sand: 1922 kg / m3. This is the sand that has been in a natural and naturally compressed environment that is now wet.
  • Wet packed sand: 2082 kg / m3. This is compacted sand that is also almost saturated with water.

Also, read: 10 Best Cement Companies In India

Aggregate Density

A

The aggregate is an aggregation of non-metallic minerals obtained in the form of particles and can be processed and used in the construction of civil and road engineering.

Aggregates Are Mainly Classified into Two Categories:

The fine aggregate is natural sand that has been washed and sieved to remove particles larger than 5 mm, and the coarse aggregate is a gravel that has been crushed, washed and sieved so that the particles vary from 5 to 50 mm in size. The fine and coarse aggregate is delivered separately.

As they need to be sieved, a prepared mixture of fine and coarse aggregate is more expensive than the natural all-in aggregate.

The reason for using a mixture of fine and coarse aggregate is that by combining them in the correct proportions, concrete with very few voids or spaces can be made, and this reduces the amount of comparatively expensive cement needed to produce strong concrete.

Also, read: Brick Masonry | Types of Bricks | Types of Brick Masonry Work

Bulk Density of Aggregate

The apparent density or unit weight of an aggregate is the Mass or weight of the aggregate needed to fill a container with a specified unit volume.

Bulk density = Mass / volume

Main features:

If the volume is one unit, Bulk density = Mass.

Unit in kg / m3 or lb / ft3.

In this definition, the volume contains the aggregates and the voids between the aggregate particles.

The approximate apparent density of the aggregate that is commonly used in normal-weight concrete is between 1200-1750 kg / m3 (75-110 lb / ft3).

Here, the standard test method for determining the apparent density of aggregates is presented in the ASTM C 29 (AASHTO T 19) standard.

The relative density of aggregate

The relative density (specific gravity) of an aggregate is the ratio between its Mass and the Mass of an equal volume of water.

Relative density = Mass of the aggregate / Mass with an equal volume of water

Main features:

Most aggregates have a relative density between 2.4-2.9 with a corresponding particle density (Mass) of 2400-2900 kg / m3 (150-181 lb / ft3).

Here, for coarse aggregates, the standard test method was explained in ASTM C 127 (AASHTO), and, for fine aggregates, the standard test method was explained in ASTM C 128 (AASHTO).

The relative density of an aggregate can be determined on an oven-dried basis or on a dry saturated surface (SSD).

Also, read: What Is Contour Interval | Calculation of Contour Intervals | Uses of Contour Intervals in Surveying

Density of Building Materials As Per IS 875 Part-1

Density of Civil Martials

Construction Materials Density (Kg /m3) Density (lb/ft3) Density (Kn /m3)
Cement 1440 kg/m3 89.8 14.4
Ordinary Cement 1440 kg/m3 89.87 14.4
Rapid Hardening Cement 1280 kg/m3 79.87 12.8
Sandstone 2000 kg/m3 124.8 20
Sludge 2100 kg/m3 131 21
Concrete (PCC) 2400 kg/m3 149.8 24
Concrete (RCC) 2500 kg/m3 156 25
Water 1000 kg/m3 62.43 10
Saline Water 1025 kg/m3 63.96 10.25
Ferry 170 kg/m3 10.6 1.7
Bamboo 300 – 400 kg/m3 18.7 – 25 3.0 – 4.0
Pine 370 – 530 kg/m3 23 – 33 3.7 – 5.3
Cedar 380 kg/m3 23.7 3.8
Aspen 420 kg/m3 26.2 4.2
Willow wood 420 kg/m3 26.2 4.2
African mahogany 495 – 850 kg/m3 31 – 53 4.95 – 8.5
Honduras mahogany 545 kg/m3 34 5.45
American redwood 450 kg/m3 28 4.5
European redwood 510 kg/m3 31.8 5.1
Fir (Canadian) 450 kg/m3 28 4.5
Fir (Sitka) 450 kg/m3 28 4.5
Aphromosia 7.05
apple 660 – 830 kg/m3 1.2 – 51.8 6.6 – 8.3
Gray (black) 540 kg/m3 33.7 5.4
Gray (white) 670 kg/m3 41.8 6.7
Birch 670 kg/m 41.8 6.7
Ebony 960 – 1120 kg/m3 59.9 – 69.9 9.6 – 11.20
Elm 600 – 815 kg/m3 37.4 – 50.8 6.0 – 8.15
Iroko 655 kg/m3 40.9 6.55
Larch 590 kg/m3 36.8 5.9
Maple 755 kg/m3 47.1 7.55
Carvalho 590 – 930 kg/m3 36.8 – 58 5.9 – 9.30
Teak 630 kg/m3 9.3 6.3
Sycamore 590 kg/m3 36.8 5.9
Lignum vitae 1280 – 1370 kg/m3 79.9 – 85.5 12.80 – 13.70
Sandy soil 1800 kg/m3 112.3 18
Clay soil 1900 kg/m3 118.6 19
Gravel soil 2000 kg/m3 124.8 20
Chalk 2100 kg/m3 131 21
Shale 2500 kg/m 156 25
Sedimentary rocks 2600 kg/m3 162.3 26
Metamorphic rocks 2700 kg/m3 168.5 27
Igneous (felsic) rocks 2700 kg/m3 168.5 27
Igneous (mafic) rocks 3000 kg/m3 187.2 30
Bricks 1500 – 1800 kg/m3 93.6 – 112.3 15.00 – 18.00
Asphalt 721 kg/m3 45 7.21
Lima 640 kg/m3 39.9 6.4
Cement mortar 2080 kg/m3 129.8 20.8
Lime mortar 1760 kg/m3 109.8 17.6
Steel 7850 kg/m3 490 78.5
Stainless steel 7480 – 8000 kg/m3 466.9 – 499.4 74.80 – 80.00
Aluminum 2739 kg/m3 170.9 27.39
Magnesium 1738 kg/m3 108.4 17.38
Cobalt 8746 kg/m3 545.9 87.46
Nickel 8908 kg/m3 556.1 89.08
Tin 7280 kg/m3 454.4 72.8
Lead 11340 kg/m3 707.9 113.4
Zinc 7135 kg/m3 445.4 71.35
Cast iron 7208 kg/m3 449.9 72.08
Copper 8940 kg/m3 558.1 89.4
Iron 7850 kg/m3 490 78.5
Glass 2580 kg/m3 161 25.8
Bitumen 1040 kg/m3 64.896 10.4
Brick Dust (Surkhi) 1010 kg/m3 63.024 10.1
Clay Soil 1900 kg/m3 118.56 19
Earth (Dry) 1410 – 1840 kg/m3 87.98 – 114.82 14.10 – 18.40
Earth (Moist) 1600 – 2000 kg/m3 99.84 – 124.8 16.00 – 20.00
Fire Bricks 2400 kg/m3 149.76 24
Granite Stone 2400 – 2690 kg/m3 149.76 – 167.85 24.00 – 26.90
Gypsum Mortar 1200 kg/m3 74.88 12
Gypsum Powder 1410 – 1760 kg/m3 87.98 – 109.82 14.10 – 17.60
Ice 920 kg/m3 57.41 9.2
Plain Cement Concrete 2400 kg/m3 149.8 24
Reinforced Cement Concrete 2500 kg/m3 156 25
Prestressed Cement Concrete 2400 kg/m3 149.8 24
RCC Blocks 2100 kg/m3 131.04 21
Rubber 1300 kg/m3 81.12 13
Sal Wood 865 kg/m3 53.98 8.65
Sand (Dry) 1540 – 1600 kg/m3 96.09 – 99.84 15.40 – 16.00
Sand (Wet) 1760 – 2000 kg/m3 109.82 – 124.80 17.60 – 20.00
Stone Ballast 1720 kg/m3 107.33 17.2
Stone chips 1600 – 1920 kg/m3 99.84 – 119.81 16.00 – 19.20

Density also decides the sinking property of a material. It is decided by knowing the density of the liquid. If the material has a lower density than the liquid, it will float on the surface of a liquid. If it is denser than the liquid, it will sink.

If two different materials have the same weight, but the density of both can be different. The lower dense material occupies more volume than the higher dense material.

The value of the density of the building material will also help to discover the amount of material needed for a specific space.

For example, water has a density of 1000kg / m3; if we put bamboo wood (350kg / m3) in the water, it will float on the water surface in the same way; if we drop a brick (1700 kg.m3), it will sink into the water.

The density of different building materials is listed below.

There are many building materials used in construction. In the table above, we try to cover the unit weight of the building materials that are most commonly used on the construction site.


FAQ

Density of RCC

Density of RCC is 2500 kg/m3 (2.500 g/cm3 or 25 kN/m3 or 156 lb/ft3).

Density of PCC

Density of PCC is 2400 kg/m3 (2.400 g/cm3 or 24 kN/m3 ).

Density of Fine Aggregate

Density of sand (fine aggregate) is ranging between 1450 – 2082 kg/m3 depending on different condition like wet, dry, loose, dry-packed, and wet packed.

Density of Coarse Aggregate

Density of coarse sand is ranging between 1450 – 2082 kg/m3 depending on different conditions like wet, dry, loose, dry-packed, and wet packed.

Density of Cement

2.8 g/cm³ (gram per cubic centimetre)

Density of Cement in kg/m3

Cement Density measured in Kg/m³ (kilograms/cubic meter), density is the ratio of mass to volume. So the density of cement in kg/m³ is 1440, in another word, 1440 kg/m3 is the density of cement.

Density of Sand

  1. Loose sand has a density of 1442 kg/m3  as it is a dry form of sand.
  2. Dry sand itself has a density of 1602 kg/m3.
  3. Packed sand is known to have a density of around 1682 kg/m3.
  4.  Wet sand has a density of 1922 kg/m3 whereas Packed Wet sand has 2082 kg/m3 of density.

Concrete Powder

Concrete powder is a solid block that comes in the 16 regular dye colors. Like sand, gravel, anvils, and the dragon egg, concrete powder obeys the law of gravity.

Bulk Density of Aggregate

The Unit weight or bulk density of aggregate is the mass or weight of the aggregate required to fill a container of a specified unit volume. The approximate unit weight of aggregate that is commonly used in normal concrete work is between 1200-1750 kg/m3  (75-110 lb/ft3)

Bulk Density of Sand

The approximate bulk density of sand that is commonly used in normal-weight concrete is between 1520-1680 kg/m3 (95-105 lb/ft3)

Cement Bulk Density

However, Cement being a binder in concrete, knowing its density will be very useful to change the characteristics of concrete. Cement has the density of or should have the density of 1440kg /m3 according to standards.

Cement Bulk Density Density in Kg/m3 Density in KN/m3
Lime Mortar 1600-1840 16-18
Ordinary Cement 1440 14.4
PCC (Plain Cement Concrete) 2400 24
Pitch 1010 10.1

Density of Crushed Sand

Crush sand is used as partial replacement of fine aggregate in construction and the density of M or crush sand is 1750 kg/m3, specific gravity and F. M. is found to be 2.73 and 4.66 respectively.

Coarse Aggregate Density

Most of the aggregates possess a relative density within 2.4 – 2.9 with a similar particle density about 2400-2900 Kg/m3 (150-181 lb/ft3).

Density of Concrete

The density of concrete varies, but is around 2,400 kilograms per cubic metre (150 lb/cu ft).

Density of Concrete Kn/m3

Material Mass density (kg/m3) Weight density (kN/m3)
Concrete (unreinforced) 2300 kg/m3 23 kN/m3

Density of Concrete g/cm3

The shielding effectiveness of concrete is to a large extent dependent on its density which in the case of ordinary concrete generally ranges between 2.2 and 2.4 g/cm3. Heavy or high-density aggregates are used to increase the density of concrete.

Density of Concrete in Kg/ft3

Material Mass density (kg/ft3) Weight density (kN/m3)
Concrete, Gravel 150 lb/ft3 2,400 kg/m3
Crushed Stone 100 lb/ft3 1,600 kg/m3
Earth, loam dry excavated 90 lb/ft3 1,440 kg/m3
Earth, packed 95 lb/ft3 1,520 kg/m3

Density of Concrete in Kg/m

As for concrete itself, the density of concrete of normal weight is about 2,400 kg per cubic meter.

Density of Concrete Per Cubic Foot

As for concrete itself, the density of concrete of normal weight is about 2,400 kg per cubic meter or 145 lbs. per cubic foot.

Density Calculation Steps

The five steps for determining density can be expressed in simple form as follows: measure the mass of the container, measure the volume of the liquid, measure the combined mass of the liquid and the container, determine the mass of the liquid alone and divide the mass by the volume.

How to Calculate Density of Concrete?

  1. Weigh the container with the concrete (2) – record value to nearest tenth of a pound.
  2. Subtract the empty container weight from the full container weight (2) – (1) = weight of concrete (3)
  3. Divide the weight of concrete by the known volume (3) / (4) = density, or fresh unit weight.

Fine Sand Density

Density of sand (fine aggregate) is ranging between 1450-2082 kg/m3 depending on different condition like wet, dry, loose, dry packed and wet packed.

Density of M sand

M- Sand was used as partial replacement of fine aggregate. The bulk density of manufactured sand was 1860 kg/m³, specific gravity and fineness modulus was found to be 2.56 and 3.10 respectively.

Bulk Density of M Sand

Manufactured Sand: M-Sand was used as partial replacement of fine aggregate. The bulk density of Manufactured sand was 1.75 kg/m³.

Density of River Sand in kg/m³

River sand have density 1710 kg/m3 is used and specific gravity is 2.65 and finance of modulus of river sand is 5.24.

Density of Concrete in Kg/m³

As for concrete itself, the density of concrete of normal weight is about 2,400 kg per cubic meter, or 145 lbs. per cubic foot.

What is Density of Fine Aggregate?

The density of sand (fine aggregate) is ranging between 1450-2082 kg/m3 depending on different conditions like wet, dry, loose, dry-packed, and wet packed.

What is Bulk Density of Aggregate?

The Unit weight or bulk density of aggregate is the mass or weight of the aggregate required to fill a container of a specified unit volume. The approximate unit weight of aggregate that is commonly used in normal concrete work is between 1200-1750 kg/m3 (75-110 lb/ft3).

What is the value of Coarse Aggregate Density?

The density of coarse aggregate used in concrete lies between 2.4 – 2.9 with a similar particle density about 2400-2900 Kg/m3 (150-181 lb/ft3).

What Is the Density of Fine Sand?

The density of sand (fine aggregate) is ranging between 1450 – 2082 kg/m3 depending on different conditions like wet, dry, loose, dry-packed, and wet packed.

What Is Density of 20 mm Aggregate?

Density of 20 mm aggregate is 1550 kg/m3, it means 1 cubic metre of 20 mm aggregate weight is 1550 kg.

What Is the Density of Sand and Aggregate?

Density of sand (fine aggregate) is ranging between 1450-2082 kg/m3 depending on different condition like wet, dry, loose, dry packed and wet packed. Density of coarse sand is ranging between 1450-2082 kg/m3 depending on different condition like wet,dry, loose, dry packed and wet packed.

What Is Meant by Bulk Density of Fine Aggregate?

Bulk density is defined as ratio of mass of fine aggregates by the total volume they occupy. Total volume means volume of fine aggregate, volume of inter particles between them and volume of internal pores present in fine particles.

What Is the Density of M Sand?

M- Sand was used as partial replacement of fine aggregate. The bulk density of manufactured sand was 1860 kg/m³, specific gravity and fineness modulus was found to be 2.56 and 3.10 respectively.

What Is Density of RCC?

Density of RCC is 2500 kg/m3 (2.500 g/cm3 or 25 kN/m3 or 156 lb/ft3).

How Do You Find the Density of Fine Aggregate?

Bulk Density of aggregate can be explained as Mass or Weight of the selected aggregate required with specific unit volume to fill a container. It can also be explained as if the volume of aggregate is one unit, then its Bulk density = Mass. Unit- kg/m3 or lb/ft3.

What Is the Density of 10mm Aggregate?

What Is Density of Crush Sand?

M sand or crush sand is used as partial replacement of fine aggregate in construction and the density of M or crush sand is 1750 kg/m3, specific gravity and F. M. is found to be 2.73 and 4.66 respectively.

How Do You Calculate Density?

Density, mass of a unit volume of a material substance. The formula for density is d = M/V, where d is density, M is mass, and V is volume. Density is commonly expressed in units of grams per cubic centimetre.

What Is the Density of 40mm Aggregate?

40mm Aggregate Density: Density of 40 mm aggtrgate is 1120 kg/m3, It means 1 cubic meter of  40 mm aggregate weight is 1120 kg.

What Is the Use of Bulk Density of Aggregate?

The bulk density of aggregates determines the type of concrete for which it may be used it can be used for judging the quality of aggregate. The bulk density is also required for converting proportions by weight into the proportions volume.

What Is the Density of Material?

Material density, more often referred to simply as density, is a quantitative expression of the amount of mass contained per unit volume . The standard unit is the kilogram per meter cubed (kg/m 3 or kg·m 3 ). Density is sometimes expressed in grams per centimeter cubed (g/cm 3 or gm·cm3).

What Is the Density of Stone Dust?

Stone, crushed weighs 1.602 gram per cubic centimeter or 1 602 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. density of stone, crushed is equal to 1 602 kg/m³. In Imperial or US customary measurement system, the density is equal to 100.0096 pound per cubic foot [lb/ft³], or 0.92601 ounce per cubic inch [oz/inch³].

What Is Specific Gravity of Fine Aggregate?

Specific gravity of fine aggregate (sand) is the ratio of the weight of given volume of aggregates to the weight of equal volume of water. The specific gravity of sands is considered to be around 2.65.

What Is the Density of Steel?

The density of steel varies based on the alloying constituents but usually ranges between 7,750 and 8,050 kg/m3 (484 and 503 lb/cu.ft), or 7.75 and 8.05 g/cm3 (4.48 and 4.65 oz/cu.in)

What Is Density Measured With?

Density has the units of mass divided by volume such as grams per centimeters cube (g/cm3) or kilograms per liter (kg/l).

How Do You Find the Density of Water?

The mass and size of the molecules in a liquid and how closely they are packed together determine the density of the liquid. Just like a solid, the density of a liquid equals the mass of the liquid divided by its volume; D = m/v. The density of water is 1 gram per cubic centimeter.

What Is the Density of Lightweight Concrete?

Lightweight concrete can be classed according to its unit weight or density, which normally ranges from 320 to 1920 kg/m3, according to the ACI Committee 213 Guide for Structural Lightweight Aggregate Concrete (ACI 213, 2001).

How Do You Find the Density of Steel?

We calculate the density of metal by dividing the mass of the object by its volume. Suppose the mass of the object is 7.952 pounds and its volume is 28 cubic inches then its density would be 0.284 per cubic inch.

What Is the Importance of Specific Gravity of Fine Aggregate?

The specific gravity of aggregates indirectly measures its density; hence it is the most essential parameter of strength or quality of the aggregates. Higher the specific gravity, higher is the strength.

What Are the Uses of Density?

The density of an object is one of its most important and easily-measured physical properties. Densities are widely used to identify pure substances and to characterize and estimate the composition of many kinds of mixtures.

What Is the Density of Dry Concrete?

As for concrete itself, the density of concrete of normal weight is about 2,400 kg per cubic meter, or 145 lbs. per cubic foot.

Why Is Density Used to Identify a Material?

Density can be useful in identifying substances. It is also a convenient property because it provides a link (or conversion factor) between the mass and the volume of a substance. Mass and volume are extensive (or extrinsic) properties of matter – they depend on amount.

What Is Bulk Density Formula?

The formula for bulk density is (mass of dry soil) / (total volume of soil), 1 – (bulk density/particle density) for porosity, and (volume of pores) / (volume of solids) for void ratio.

How Does Density Work?

Density is a measure of how compact the mass in a substance or object is. The density of an object or substance can be calculated from this equation: density in kilograms per meter cubed is equal to mass in kilograms, divided by volume in meters cubed. If each meter cubed weighs more, the substance is more dense.

What Is High Density Concrete?

High density concrete is a concrete having a density in the range of 6000 to 6400 kg/cu. High density concrete is also known as Heavy weight concrete. High density concrete is mainly used for the purpose of radiation shielding, for counterweights and other uses where high density is required.

What Is the Use of Bulk Density?

Bulk density is also used to convert between weight and volume of soil. It is used to express soil physical, chemical and biological measurements on a volumetric basis for soil quality assessment and comparisons between management systems.

What Is Density of Stone?

Stone, crushed weighs 1.602 g/cm3  or 1 602 kg/m3, i.e. density of stone, crushed is equal to 1 602 kg/m³. In Imperial or US customary measurement system, the density is equal to 100.0096 pound per cubic foot [lb/ft³], or 0.92601 ounce per cubic inch [oz/inch³].

What Is Asphalt Density?

Concrete, Asphalt weighs 2.243 gram per cubic centimeter or 2 243 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. density of concrete, Asphalt is equal to 2 243 kg/m³. In Imperial or US customary measurement system, the density is equal to 140.0259 pound per cubic foot [lb/ft³], or 1.2965 ounce per cubic inch [oz/inch³].

Density of Aggregate

Most aggregates have a relative density between 2.4-2.9 with a corresponding particle (mass) density of 2400-2900 kg/m3 (150-181 lb/ft3).

6 thoughts on “Density of Cement Sand and Aggregate | Cement Density | Sand Density | Aggregate Density | list of Density”

  1. Thank you for sharing this post. Very well organized and informative content. Would love to read more posts like this.

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