What Is Rainwater Harvesting?
Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the collection and storage of rain, rather than allowing it to run off. Rainwater is collected from a roof-like surface and redirected to a tank, cistern, deep pit (well, shaft, or borehole), aquifer, or a reservoir with percolation.
Rainwater Harvesting Methodology:
There are various methods that are available for rainwater harvesting, those are:
- To design a rainwater harvesting system at first collecting the rainwater and subsurface water in a hygienic way.
- In large areas, water availability is more, increase inplantation.
- Stormwater harvesting helps both sides of structures. Stormwater hazards cities but they help to fill the groundwater level by 8 to 10 times compare to the normal process.
- Rainwater harvesting technology requires a hydrogeological study for location and design. Zones are separated by different rainfall types.
Types of Rainwater Harvesting Method:
Types of Rainwater Harvesting Method are as follows.
- Water Butt.
- Gravity Only.
- Indirect Gravity.
- Direct Pumped (Submersible).
- Direct Pumped (Suction).
- Indirect Pumped.
#1. Water Butt:
- This water butt technique is one of the basic methods of harvesting. In this method, water collects from a rainwater pipe or a container by natural rainfall to use only for watering for the plants in the garden.
- Reasonable size garden users will see the reduction of the main water used.
- If you add a rainwater filter with the rainwater tank, you will get a better-harvested rainwater quality.
#2. Gravity Only:
- In this system, no other instrument is required; it just functions by gravity. In this rainwater is collected from the roof.
- This is only applicable in those areas where the storage tank is located at a higher level.
- Here, only gravity power is needed to supply various places.
#3. Indirect Gravity:
- In this type, harvested water is first pumped out to a higher-level tank then it allows to supply to a lower level by gravity.
- In this process pump is worked only when the upper tank required water.
#4. Direct Pumped (Submersible):
- This is the most common type of professional rainwater harvesting process and it’s the easiest process to install.
- The pump is set in the underground tank, and the harvested water is directly pumped.
- If the tank is going to running out, a little amount of the main waiter is fed to it.
- In commercial projects dual pumps are used.
#5. Direct Pumped (Suction):
- In this system, the pump is not set in the tank, it’s set in a utility room.
- It acts as a backup for the main water.
#6. Indirect Pumped:
- This is similar to indirect gravity, but here the tank is located at any level of the building because it does not require gravity for supply.
- Now a days booster pumps are installed to maintain the flow and pressure of water thoroughly in the building.
Rainwater Harvesting Project:
Design and Feasibility of Rainwater Harvesting System for Raj Nagar, Kavi Nagar, Kamla Nehru, or Panch Lok
Aim of Rainwater Harvesting Project:
Design and feasibility of rainwater harvesting system for Raj Nagar, Kavi Nagar, Kamla Nagar, or Panch Lok.
Objective of Rainwater Harvesting Project:
- For calculation of rainfall discharge.
- For determining the rainfall characteristics of the area.
- For knowing the relation between groundwater and the rainwater potential.
- Each zone and each land use has required a design prototype to placed the different types of recharging structures.
- To calculate the runoff water of differents colony that’s area is used for the project.
Study Area for Rainwater Harvesting Project:
- The total area of these four places is around 10 sq km.
- There is a park in every 1-1.5 sq km.
- This area is mostly locality.
- To know the water level and soil strata we made holes and found the groundwater level up to 35 m.
- Near the park mostly done.
Soil Condition and Climate for Rainwater Harvesting Project:
- The soil conditions of those areas are silty sand and loamy soils.
- During summer and winter, the temperature is extreme and dry.
- The temperature in summer is 22 to 42° C or winter is 6 to 26° C.
- The limited during months June to September there is average rainfall is 732 mm.
Quality of Groundwater for Rainwater Harvesting Project:
- The respect of all constituents expected for total hardness and nitrate the groundwater should be suitable for drinking and domestic uses.
- In the groundwater has not been detected the arsenic content.
Ways of Harvesting Water for Rainwater Harvesting Project:
- Collecting runoff water from roads, roofs.
- Collecting the water from the local catchment.
- For domestic or agricultural purposes conserving water from the watershed management Is used.
- From the local stream capturing the seasonal floodwater.
Need of Rainwater Harvesting
- Nowadays rainwater harvesting is very essential for us.
- Because the ground level water belongs very down from the ground.
- So the requirements are not full fell of us with the groundwater.
- That happens for the domestic abuses of water and the industrial abuses of water.