What Is Scaffolding?
Scaffolding is a temporary platform used to lift, support, and supply materials during a construction process for the repair or cleaning of a structure.
It is installed before construction or maintenance work begins. Therefore, whatever the size of a building, scaffolding will always be necessary.
This is done to ensure the safety of workers while the building is being maintained or constructed. In addition, it also provides some degree of support for a standing structure during the construction phase.
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Types of Scaffolding Used in Construction
The following are the types of scaffolding under construction:
- Simple scaffolding
- Double scaffolding
- Cantilever scaffolding
- Suspended scaffolding
- Trestle Scaffolding
- Steel scaffolding
- Patented scaffolding
- Wooden Gantries Scaffolding
Parts of Scafloding as Below Fig.
- Standards: The vertical posts (also called uprights)
- Ledgers: The horizontal members parallel to the wall
- Braces: The bracing system
- Putlogs: Horizontal members normal to the wall
- Transoms: Putlogs whose both ends are supported on ledgers in double scaffoldings
- Bridle: Member used to bridge openings (see the description of single scaffolding below)
- Boarding: Planks on which workmen stand
- Guard rail: Rail provided at about I m level to guard the men working on the boarding
- Toe board: Boards placed parallel to boarding near the wall to give protection to workers
- Base plate or sole plate. Plates on the ground supporting standards
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1. Single Scaffolding
This is being cheap, and it is most commonly used in the construction brickwork.
This type of scaffolding is mostly used for brickwork and consists of an outer row of verticals (called standards) to which longitudinal members are tied at different levels of working (see above fig.).
This type of scaffolding moot of members except platforms is usually made of bamboos and standards which are driven into the ground at a distance 1.5m to 2.0 m apart and about 1.2 m away from the wall to be constructed.
The cross members (putlogs) are tied to the standards at the outer end and rest on the walls being built inside. The platform is carried on the putlogs.
If the putlog level coincides with an opening in the wall, it cannot be placed on the wall. Hence it should rest on a cross piece (called bridle tube) tied at the wall end of the adjacent putlogs.
Cross bracing in the vertical planes between the verticals are also to be introduced for lateral stability.
Where the verticals posts cannot be placed on base plates or in holes made in the ground, it should be suitably placed and braced for lateral stability.
A popular method in such cases is to place the vertical post in a steel barrel of 60 cm in height and of suitable diameter filled with compacted earth as shown above fig.
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2. Double Scaffolding
This type of scaffolding is stronger than the single scaffolding and is used in the construction of stonework some times in addition to the diagonal braless. Inclined supports called reacting source, are provided to prevent the slipping of scaffold away from the wall.
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3. Cantilever Scaffolding
In the other type, the needles are supported inside the floor through the openings, and this is called independent or double frame scaffolding. Care must be taken when building scaffolding on a cantilever.
Generally, cantilever scaffolding is used in conditions such as
- When the terrain is unable to support standards,
- When the floor near the wall is free of traffic,
- When the top of the wall is under construction.
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4. Suspended Scaffolding
This type of scaffolding is suitable for hight steel frame construction as well as for mailer works such as painting distend peering etc.
In suspended scaffolding, the work platform is suspended from the roofs with the help of cables or chains, etc., it can be raised or lowered to the required level. This type of scaffold is used for repairs, notes, paintings, etc.
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5. Trestle Scaffolding
In trestle scaffolding, the work platform is supported on tripods or mobile ladders. It is generally used for work inside the room, such as paintings, repairs, etc. up to a height of 5m.
6. Steel Scaffolding
The construction details of steel scaffolding are the same as of timber scaffolding except for wooden members and replaced by steel tubes is about 40 mm to 60 mm, and the thickness of steel metal is about 5 mm.
Steel scaffolding is constructed by steel tubes that are attached by couplers or steel fittings. It is very easy to build or dismantle.
It has greater resistance, greater durability, and greater resistance to fire. It is not economical, but it will give workers more security. Therefore, it is widely used today.
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7. Patented Scaffolding
Patented scaffolding is made of steel, but is equipped with special couplings and structures, etc., are ready scaffolding available on the market.
This type of work platform for scaffolding is placed on supports that can be adjusted to the required level.
8. Wooden Gantries Scaffolding
In construction operation where structural materials are beyond the capacity of manual handing, the gantries are used.
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Below Are Three Main Reasons Why the Construction Industry Uses Scaffolding:
1. Ensures security
Safety is a priority at construction sites; the use of scaffolding, therefore, becomes important to create a safe workplace for workers working at heights during the construction of a building.
Another advantage of using scaffolding is that it provides a flat and balanced work platform that allows multiple employees to work at one location simultaneously.
This really helps in the quick construction of different structures. Maintaining balance for workers is easier with scaffolding equipment; therefore, the chances of unjustified accidents decrease.
Scaffolding also requires handrails on the upper platform, reducing the chance of injury. This is also important for the safety of pedestrians and the public.
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2. Easy access
The construction of skyscrapers is a difficult task because many parts of a building are difficult to reach for workers due to their position.
Scaffolding solves this big problem, and workers can concentrate on their work without any difficulty. They can reach any part of a building’s wall or ceiling at an arm’s length.
As a small wooden, fiberglass, or light metal platform, it offers the necessary height to complete a task easily and efficiently.
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3. Position advantage
A major advantage of scaffolding is the strategic position it provides workers. Although ladders are also used for this purpose, they are angled and do not provide a solid platform for the balance of workers.
Scaffolding places workers directly in front of the parts of the wall or ceiling where they need to work. This gives them a big advantage.
If multiple workers are required to work side by side simultaneously, this is not possible using the ladders summary.
So far, it should be clear that scaffolding is a necessary part of the construction industry, whether it is about building skyscrapers or carrying out repairs and maintenance on any structure.
The scaffolding not only guarantees a faster completion of the works but also guarantees the safety of the workers and the public in the construction sites.