Important Point
What Is Column?
A compression member, i.e., column, is an important element of every reinforced concrete structure. These are used to transfer a load of superstructure to the foundation safely.
Mainly columns, struts, and pedestals are used as compression members in buildings, bridges, supporting systems of tanks, factories, and many more such structures.
A column is defined as a vertical compression member who is mainly subjected to the effective length and axial loads of which exceeds three times its least lateral dimension.
The compression member whose effective length is less than three times its least lateral dimension is called Pedestal.
The compression member who is inclined or horizontal and is subjected to axial loads is called Strut. Struts are used in trusses.
The function of columns is to transfer the load of the structure vertically downwards to transfer it to a foundation. Apart from the wall performs the following functions also:
 It encloses building areas into different compartments and provides privacy.
 It provides safety from burglary and insects.
 It keeps the building warm in cools in summer and winter.
Also, read: What Is Pier Foundation  Types of Drilled Piers  Advantages and Disadvantages of Drilled Pier Foundations
What Is Beam?
The beam is a structural element that stands against the bending. Mainly beam carries vertical gravitational forces, but also pull the horizontal loads on it.
The beam is called a wall plate or sill plate that carries the transmits and load it to the girders, columns, or walls. It is attached with.
In the early centuries, timbers were the most preferred material to be used as a beam for this structural support purpose, now to bear the force along with carrying vertical gravitational force, now they are made up of aluminum, steel, or other such materials.
In actual means, beams are these structural materials, which bear the sheer force of the load and the bending moment.
To carry on the more tension and load, prestressed concrete beams are widely used nowadays in the foundation of bridges and other such humongous structures.
Several famous beams used nowadays are supported Beam, Fixed Beam, Cantilever Beam, Continuous Beam, Overhanging Beam.
What is Wall?
Wall is a structural element that divides the space (room) into two spaces (rooms) and also provides safety and shelter. Generally, the wall is differentiated as two types of outerwall and innerwall.
Outerwalls give an enclosure to the house for shelter, and innerwalls help to partition the enclosure into the required number of rooms. Inner walls are also called as Partition walls.
Walls are built to partition the living area into different parts. They impart privacy and protection against temperature, rain, and theft.
Also, read: What Is Plaster  Type of Plaster  Defects In Plastering
What Is Slab?
A slab is constructed to provide flat surfaces, typically horizontal, in building roofs, floors, bridges, and other types of structures. The slab could be supported by walls, by reinforced concrete beams normally cast monolithically with the slab, by structural steel beams, either by columns or from the ground.
A slab is a plate element having a depth (D), very small as compared to its length and width. A slab is used as floor or roof in buildings, carry distribution load uniformly.
Slab May Be
 Simply Supported.
 Continuos.
 Cantilever.
Different Load Calculation on Column, Beam, Wall & Slab
 Column = Self Weight x Number of floors
 Beams = Self Weight per running meter
 Wall Load Per Running Meter
 Total Load on Slab (Dead Load + Live Load +Wind Load + SelfWeight)
Besides this above loading, the columns are also subjected to bending moments that have to be considered in the final design. These tools are reduced laborious and consuming method of manual calculations for structural design, this is highly recommended nowadays in the field.
The most effective method for designing structure is to use advanced structural design software like STAAD Pro or ETABS. For professional structural design practice, there are some basic assumptions we use for structural loading calculations.
Also, read: Introduction of Gantry Girder  Load on Gantry Gutter  Type of Load on Gantry Gutter
Load Calculation on Column:
We know that the Selfweight of Concrete is around 2400 kg/m^{3}, which is equivalent to 24.54 kn/m^{3}and the Selfweight of Steel is around 7850 kg/m^{3}. ( Note: 1 Kilonewton Is Equal to 101.9716 Kilograms)
So, if we assume a column size of 300 mm x 600 mm with 1% steel and 2.55 (why 2.55 so, 3 m column hight – beam size) meters standard height, the selfweight of the column is around 1000 kg per floor, that id equal to 10 kN.
How to Load Calculation on Column?
 Size of column Height 2.55 m, Length = 300 mm, Width = 600 mm
 Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 2.55 =0.459 m³
 Weight of Concrete = 0.459 x 2400 = 1101.60 kg
 Weight of Steel (1%) in Concrete = 0.459 x 1% x 7850 = 36.03 kg
 Total Weight of Column = 1101.60 + 36.03 = 1137.63 kg = 11.12 KN
While doing calculations, we assume the self weight of columns is between 10 to 12 kN per floor.
Beam Load Calculation:
We adopt the same method of calculations for beam also.
we assume each meter of the beam has dimensions of 300 mm x 600 mm excluding slab thickness.
Assume each (1m) meter of the beam has dimension
How to Beam Load Calculation?
 300 mm x 600 mm excluding slab.
 Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 1 =0.18 m³
 Weight of Concrete = 0.18 x 2400 = 432 kg
 Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.18 x 2% x 7850 = 28.26 kg
 Total Weight of Column = 432 + 28.26 = 460.26 kg/m = 4.51 KN/m
So, the selfweight will be around 4.51 kN per running meter.
Also, read: Difference Between Bitumen and Tar  What Is Bitumen  What Is Tar
How to Wall Load Calculation:
we know that the Density of bricks varies between 1800 to 2000 kg/m^{3}.
For a 9 inch (230 mm) thick Brick wall of 2.55meter height and a length of 1 meter,
The load / running meter to be equal to 0.230 x 1 x 2.55 x 2000 = 1173 kg/meter,
which is equivalent to 11.50 kN/meter.
This method can be adopted for load calculations of Brick per running meter for any brick type using this technique.
For aerated concrete blocks and autoclaved concrete (ACC) blocks, like Aerocon or Siporex, the weight per cubic meter is between 550 to 650 kg per cubic meter.
The load/running meter to be equal to 0.230 x 1 x 2.55 x 650= 381.23 kg
if you are using these blocks for construction, the wall loads per running meter can be as low as 3.74 kN/meter, use of this block can significantly reduce the cost of the project.
How to Slab Load Calculation:
Let, Assume the slab has a thickness of 150 mm.
So, the Selfweight of each square meter of the slab would be
Slab Load Calculation = 0.150 x 1 x 2400 = 360 kg which is equivalent to 3.53 kN.
Now, If we consider the Floor Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter, superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter, and Wind Load as per Is 875 Near about 2 kN per meter.
So, from the above data, we can estimate the slab load to be around 8 to 9 kN per square meter.

Column Design Calculations PDF: Click Here

How to Calculate Load of a Building PDF
How to Load Calculation Column Beam Wall Slab
Load Calculation on Column:
 Volume of Concrete = 0.23 x 0.60 x 3 =0.414m³
 Weight of Concrete = 0.414 x 2400 = 993.6 kg
 Weight of Steel (1%) in Concrete = 0.414x 0.01 x 8000 = 33 kg
 Total Weight of Column = 994 + 33 = 1026 kg = 10KN
Wall Load Calculation
 Density of brick wall with mortar is about ranging between 16002200 kg/m^{3}. So we consider self weight of brick wall is 2200 kg/m^{3} in this calculation.
 Volume of brick wall: Volume of brickwall = l × b ×h, Length = 1 meter, Width = 0.152 mm, Height of wall = 2.5 meter, Volume = 1m× 0.152 m× 2.5 m, Volume of brick wall = 0.38 m^{3}
 Dead load of brick wall: Weight = volume × density, Dead load = 0.38 m^{3} × 2200 kg/m^{3}, Dead load = 836 kg/m
 It will be converted into kilo Newton by dividing with 100 we will get 8.36 kN/m
 So dead load of a brick wall is about 8.36 kN/m acting on column.
Beam Load Calculation
 300 mm x 600 mm excluding slab thickness.
 Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 1 =0.18 m³
 Weight of Concrete = 0.18 x 2400 = 432 kg
 Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.18 x 2% x 7850 = 28.26 kg
 Total Weight of Column = 432 + 28.26 = 460.26 kg/m = 4.51 KN/m
Column Load
A column is an essential structural member of the RCC structure that helps transfer the superstructure’s load to the foundation. It is a vertical compression member subjected to direct axial load and its effective length is three times larger than its least lateral dimension.
Dead Load Calculation for a Building
By calculating the volume of each member and multiplying by the unit weight of the materials from which it is composed, an accurate dead load can be determined for each component.
Column Design Calculations
 Volume of Concrete = 0.23 x 0.60 x 3 =0.414m³
 Weight of Concrete = 0.414 x 2400 = 993.6 kg
 Weight of Steel (1%) in Concrete = 0.414x 0.01 x 8000 = 33 kg
 Total Weight of Column = 994 + 33 = 1026 kg = 10KN
Footing Load Calculations
For a 6″ thick wall with 3 meter height and 1 meter length, the load can be measured per running meter equivalent to 0.150 x 1 x 3 x 2000 = 900 kg which is equivalent to 9 kN/meter. The load per running meter can be measured for any brick type by following this method.
Concrete Slab Load Calculations
 Size of Slab Length 3 m x 2 m Thickness 0.150 m
 Concrete Volume = 3 x 2 x 0.15 =0.9 m³
 Concrete weight = 0.9 x 2400 = 2160 kg.
Steel Load Calculation
 Size of Slab Length 3 m x 2 m Thickness 0.150 m
 Concrete Volume = 3 x 2 x 0.15 =0.9 m³
 Concrete weight = 0.9 x 2400 = 2160 kg.
 Steel weight (1%) in Concrete = 0.9 x 0.01 x 7850 = 70.38 kg.
 Total Column weight= 2160 + 70.38 = 2230.38 kg/m = 21.87 KN/m.
How to Calculate Load on Beam
 300 mm x 600 mm excluding slab.
 Volume of Concrete = 0.30 x 0.60 x 1 =0.18 m³
 Weight of Concrete = 0.18 x 2400 = 432 kg
 Weight of Steel (2%) in Concrete = 0.18 x 2% x 7850 = 28.26 kg
 Total Weight of Column = 432 + 28.26 = 460.26 kg/m = 4.51 KN/m
Wall Beam
A beam structure, sometimes simply referred to as a beam, is a type of structure used in construction and engineering to provide a safe and efficient load path that effectively distributes weight throughout the foundation of a building. These beams support the load by resisting being bent under the load’s pressure.
Dead Load Formula
The formula for Dead load = volume of member x unit weight of materials
By calculating the volume of each member and multiplying by the unit weight of the materials from which it is composed, an accurate dead load can be determined for each component.
Slab Base of Column Is Used for Loads
Slab bases are used where the columns have independent concrete pedestals and when the column is subjected to only direct loads of less intensity and no bending moment. Along with thick steel base plate there are also two cleat angles, which connects the flanges of the column to the base plate.
How to Calculate Dead Load?
Dead load = volume of member x unit weight of materials
The Load Acting on the Column Is
The loads applied to a column are only axial loads. Loads on columns are typically applied at the ends of the member, producing axial compressive stresses. However, on occasion the loads acting on a column can include axial forces, transverse forces, and bending moments (e.g. beamcolumns).
Design Load Formula
The load /meter is = 0.230 x 1 x 3 x 2000 = 1380 kg or 13 kN/meter. This process can be used for Brick’s load calculations per meter for any type of brick. For AAC blocks (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete) the weight per cubic meter is about 550 to 700 kg/m^{3}
Live Load Calculator
L=Lo∗(0.25+15/SQRT(KLL∗At))
 Where L is the reduced design live load per ft^{2}
 L0 is the unreduced design live load per ft^{2}
 KLL is the live load element factor
 At is the tributary area (ft^{2})
Beam and Slab
An RCC beam is provided within the slab, which depth is equal to the slab depth refers to the hidden beam. It also refers to a flat beam or concealed beam. The hidden beam forms an integral part of the frame structure and is usually used.
Live Load Formula
For the floor live loads, use the ASCE 716 equations to check for the possibility of a reduction. Lo=40Ib/ft^{2} (from Table 4.1 in ASCE 716). If the interior column KLL=4, then the influence area A1=KLLAT=(4)(900ft^{2})=3600ft^{2}.
How to Calculate Load of a Building?
Calculate load factor by dividing the total square footage in the building by the usable square footage. In this example, you would take 6500 square feet – the total square footage of the building – and divide it by 5500 – the usable square footage of the building. That gives us a load factor of 1.18.
How to Calculate Live Load?
Dividing the actual load distribution into the length of the beam will give you the uniformly distributed load in kilonewton per meter. To use in design these service loads should be multiplied by the ULS factor, 1.2 for Dead Loads and 1.6 for Live Loads.
Structural Load Calculation Example
 300 mm x 450 mm excluding slab thickness.
 Concrete Volume = 0.3 x 0.60 x 1 =0.138m³
 Concrete weight = 0.138 x 2400 = 333 kg.
 Steel weight (2%) in Concrete = = 0.138 x 0.02 x 7850 = 22 kg.
 Total Column weight= 333 + 22 = 355 kg/m = 3.5 KN/m.
Beam Load Calculator

Live Load Calculation
Dividing the actual load distribution into the length of the beam will give you the uniformly distributed load in kilonewton per meter. To use in design these service loads should be multiplied by the ULS factor, 1.2 for Dead Loads and 1.6 for Live Loads.
How to Calculate Column Size for Building?
 In rectangular or or square columns, one side will be usually equal to width of the wall usually 230mm or 300mm.
 Other side will be usually provided based on form work available usually 230mm, 300mm, 375mm, 450mm, 600mm.
Slab and Beam
An RCC beam is provided within the slab, which depth is equal to the slab depth refers to the hidden beam. It also refers to a flat beam or concealed beam. The hidden beam forms an integral part of the frame structure and is usually used.
Floor Finish Load
Floor finish load is also one type of dead load which is act on a floor slab. Floor finish load includes the weight of tiles and other materials. Generally, in structural design floor finish load should be taken as 1.5kN/m^{2}.
Column Load Calculation
 Concrete Volume = 0.3 x 0.60 x 3 =0.54m³
 Concrete Weight = 0.54 x 2400 = 1296 kg.
 Steel Weight (1%) in Concrete = 0.54 x 0.01 x 7850 = 42.39 kg.
 Total Column Weight = 1296 + 42.39 = 1338.39 kg = 13.384KN.
Steel Structure Design Calculation
 Weight of Square Steel bar in kgs/m = volume of steel bar x Density of steel dimension in meters
 Weight of Square Steel bar in kgs/m = area of bar x Density of steel dimension in mm.
Concrete Slab Load Capacity Calculator
 Loads on the RCC Slab: Selfweight= concrete unit weight * Volume of concrete
 Loads on the Beam: Selfweight= concrete unit weight* beam width*beam height
 Compute Applied Moment: Applied moment (Mu)= (Wu * l2)/10
 Compute Resistant Moment: Reinforcement area (As) = ((PI/4)*D2)* No. of bars
Live Load Calculation Formula
 Total Dead Loads (e.g., selfweight and SDL)= (6.25+6) kN/m^{2} = 12.25 kN/m^{2}.
 Total Live Load = 2 kN/m^{2}.
Live Load and Dead Load Calculation
Let, Assume the slab has a thickness of 150 mm. Slab Load Calculation = 0.150 x 1 x 2400 = 360 kg which is equivalent to 3.53 kN. Now, If we consider the Floor Finishing load to be 1 kN per meter, superimposed live load to be 2 kN per meter, and Wind Load as per Is 875 Near about 2 kN per meter.
Dead Load of Slab
Dead load on a structure is the result of the weight of the permanent components such as beams, floor slabs, columns and walls. These components will produce the same constant ‘dead’ load during the lifespan of the building. Dead loads are exerted in the vertical plane.
Load Distribution from Slab to Beam
The slab is commonly divided into trapezoidal and triangular areas by drawing lines from each corner of the rectangle at 45 degrees. The beam’s distributed load is computed by multiplying the segment area (trapezoidal or triangular area) by the slab’s unit load divided by the beam length.
Structural Design Calculations
So, what are structural calculations? They are the math behind your building’s ability to stay upright. Engineers use them to determine the loads that a building must withstand and the properties of members that comprise its structure.
Factored Load Formula
Calculate load factor by dividing the total square footage building by the usable square footage. In this example, you would take 6500 square feet – the total square footage of the building – and divide it by 5500 – the usable square footage of the building.
Dead Load Calculator
Formula. DL = V * D. Volume. Cubic Meter m^{3}
Load Carrying Capacity Is More in Which Column
Steel concrete composite columns such as concreteencased steel (CES) and concretefilled steel tube (CFT) columns have large loadcarrying capacity and high local stability due to composite action, and highstrength materials improve structural safety and space efficiency.
Load Distribution from Slab to Beam Formula
The beam’s distributed load is computed by multiplying the segment area (trapezoidal or triangular area) by the slab’s unit load divided by the beam length.
Floor Finish Load on Slab
Floor finish load on slab is also one type of dead load which is act on a floor slab. Floor finish load includes the weight of tiles and other materials. Generally, in structural design floor finish load should be taken as 1.5kN/m^{2}.
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very good site
very helpful to new civil engineers
you should start structural design service for ind.hoes and buildings
also elevation and 3d service
Good work.
Good service u r doing to society.
Please keep it going on & publish new papers regularly.
Thanks, Sir
I don’t get any download link.
Which type of download link
Can you please provide me step by step method for reinforcement requirements especially
Load calculation
1 ) dead load
2) live load
3) wind load
4) snow load
Factoral load
Also please provide detailed step of main steel calculation, spacing, distribution steel.
In check for cracking
Please help me the valu 240mm how to the proceedure.
I was totally difficult to understand from the reinforcement requirements. Can you pleae give me a step step calculation from their.
Thanking you
[email protected]
5) seismic load
can i get steps for calculating all kinds of loads
Vary good, and very helpful site.
I am engineer Chuks and really enjoyed the calculation
Very helpful site
Thanks for your service and kindness am very interested in the process going
Am Engr peter, very interesting structural members calculation.
So much enjoyable
Thank You So Much These Formula Are Really Helpful
I can’t understand how I calculate all loads & starting from
of load . such as dead load or leave load .which one is comes 1st.
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