Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge
Abbreviation, Full Forms, and Terminology.
|ASTM||American society for testing materials|
|C/C||Center to center distance|
|Sub-structure||Structure which is below the ground level|
|Super-structure||Structure which is above ground level|
|Elevation||View which we can see when we stand right in front of the structure on any of the sides.|
|Plastering||Cement, sand, and water mix applied on brick wall for smooth surface for painting.|
|Plinth level||Level on which the actual structure stands on|
|Riser||The vertical height of single step|
|Tread||Horizontal portion where we put our foot on which going on steps|
|Footing||The bottom most part of structure. These are categorized as Isolated footing, combined footing, Raft etc.|
|Columns||The vertical members of structure|
|Clear cover||Clear distance maintained from concrete face up to face of the reinforcement steel.|
|Effective depth||Distance from top of the concrete face upto the CG of reinforcement.|
|Singly reinforced section||Section of concrete member with reinforcement at only on tension face.|
|Doubly reinforced section||Section of concrete member with reinforcement on both tension and compression side.|
|Stirrups||Steel bent in closed shape of either Rectangular of circular shape.|
|Cantilever beam||Beam with fixed support on one side and the other end is free.|
|Propped cantilever||Beam with fixed support on one side and other end is with pinned support.|
|Pedestal||Length of the member is less than 3 times in width|
|One way slab||Ratio of length to width is more than 2 its one way slab|
|Two way slab||Ratio of length to width is less than or equal to 2 , its two way slab.|
|Slender column||Length to width ratio of column is more than 12 , then its slender column|
|Plain cement concrete||Cement concrete mix provided on the ground level over which foundations, beams are constructed.|
|Pile foundation||The foundation system with Piles i.e cylinder shaped reinforced concrete member.|
|Retaining wall||Wall constructed to retain earth|
|Scaffolding||Temporary structure, where work needs to be carried out at higher elevations.|
- Cement: Cement is essentially attained by crushing the gravels comprising lime in addition to clay. Cement is the binder that aids in the attachment of cement, sand alongside with water. Nearly of the actual significant categories of cement.
- Aggregate: Two different type of aggregate are as follows.
- Fine Aggregate
- Fine aggregate is the material which permits finished 4.75 mm sieve then reserved on 0.075 mm sieve
- Example: Sand
- Coarse Aggregate
- Coarse aggregate is the material which retains on 4.75 mm sieve.
- Example: Gravel
- Fine Aggregate
- Concrete: Concrete is attained by mingling cement, aggregate in addition water in accordance with a preferred mix. At this point water to cement proportion shows a significant part.
- Strength of concrete is inversely proportionate to the water-cement ratio.
- Concrete is characterized by terminology as M-25. Where M is Mix and 25 is the compression strength at the 28 days allowing for concrete cubes of 15 cm cube.
- Concrete has Two setting types.
- Initial Setting time is of 30 min.
- Final Setting time is of 10 hrs.
- The test for setting time is through by means of Vicats apparatus.
- Concrete setting time can be increased or decreased dependent on environmental circumstances by means of admixtures.
- Admixture for increasing the setting time is named retarder then for decreasing the setting time is named accelerator.
Any Structure Typically Consists of Following
- Main Walls and partition walls.
- Finishes – Plastering and Painting.
- Boundary Wall.
Basic Loads on Structure
- Self-weight of structure i.e slabs, beams, columns, walls, etc.,
- Live Loads due to furniture, equipment, machinery, etc.
- Wind Loads.
- Seismic Loads / Earthquake Loads
- Snow Loads
- Hurricane Loads at some locations
List of Major Indian Codes
|Code for Reinforced concrete||IS: 456|
|Specifications for steel construction||IS: 800|
|Wind Loads on building||IS: 875|
|For Seismic Specifications||IS: 1893|
|For water retaining structures||IS: 3370|
Usefull Tips for Civil Engineers
|Lapping of bars||Diameter of bar is less than 36mm.|
|Circular column||Use Minimum 6 longitudinal bars|
|Thickness of slab||Minimum is 0.125m|
|PH value of water||More than 6 should be used for building purposes.|
|Compressive strength of Bricks||3.5 N /mm2|
|Dead Load of structure||Self-weight of Structure|
|Moisture content||Sand that haves more than 5% must not be used for Concrete mix.|
|DPC||Thickness should not be less than 2.5cm|
|RMC (Ready Mix concrete)||
|Height of floor||3 m or 10 ft|
|Cantilever Beam||One end is fixed support and the other end is free.|
|Simply supported beam||It has Minimum of two supports|
|PCC||It is Used on members when the tensile forces are not acting on it.|
|Weight of first-class clay brick and crushing strength||3.85 Kg and 10.5MN/m2|
|Impermeability of concrete||It is the concrete that resists the entry of water or moisture into it.|
|Curing Period of RCC||28 days|
|Minimum sill level height||44 inches|
|Ties||Transverse reinforcement providing in columns|
|Stirrups||Transverse reinforcement providing in Beams|
|The thermal expansion co-efficient of concrete and steel||12×10−6/°C|
|Number of Bricks necessary for 1m3 of Brick masonary||550 bricks|
|Specific gravity of Cement
Specific gravity of brick
Specific gravity of sand
|Standard Size of Brick||19 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm|
|Slope or Pitch of the stair||25 degrees to 40 degrees|
|Rise in stairs||150mm to 200mm|
|Tread in staircase||250mm to 300mm|
|Hook length||More than 9 * diameter of bar|
|Unit weight of PCC
Unit weight of RCC
Unit weight of STEEL
|Volume of 50 kg cement bag||1.3cft|
|TMT bars||Thermo Mechanically treated bars|
|Length of each bar from factory||12m|
Concrete Basic Knowledge
- The concrete must not be thrown as of a height of more than 1m.
- Cube test is passed out for every 30 m3practise of concrete.
- A head mason must labour 25-30 m3throughtout a day.
- In manufacturing, the rate analysis for the work of labours is considered in Man Hours.
- Theodolite least count is 20 Secs while Compass Least count is 30 mins.
- Cement more than 3 months old cannot be used for construction.
- Calculation of extra water in the concrete mix to rise setting time primes to arrangement the Cracks or honeycomb in hardened concrete.
- Vibration in freshly made concrete is completed to eliminate the air foams in a concrete mix.
- The concrete can be raised to an extreme height of 50 musing Concrete Pumps.
- Stirrups in Beams and Ties in Column are on condition that to grip the shear force and to save longitudinal bars in location.
- The Major aim for by means of steel as reinforcement is owing to thermal expansion.
- M20 grade of concrete is normally used in the construction of a slab.
- Floor area engaged by 50 kg of Cement bag is 0.3 m2 and elevation of 0.18 m.
- According to IS 456: 2000, Maximum diameter of bar used in the slab would not surpass 1/8th of the entire thickness of the slab.
Test of Building Materials
Civil engineers need to ensure correct information of various tests of building materials.
- Soil Test.
- Core Cutter Test.
- Compaction Test of Soil.
- Sand Replacement Test.
- Tri-axial Test.
- Consolidation Test.
- Concrete Test.
- Slump Test.
- Compression Test.
- Split Tensile Test.
- Bitumen Test.
- Ductility Test
- Softening Point Test
- Gravity Test.
- Penetration Test.
Concrete Slump Value for Various Concrete Constructions
Slump range in mm
|Columns and Retaining walls||
|Beams and Slabs||
|Cement Concrete Pavements||
|Decks of bridge||
|Huge Mass constructions||
Grades of Concrete:
|Grades of Concrete||
Clear Cover to Main Reinforcement:
|Top Raft Foundation||50 mm|
|Bottom/ Sides Raft Foundation||75 mm|
|Strap Beam||50 mm|
|Grade Slab||20 mm|
|Shear Wall||25 mm|
|Flat Slabs||20 mm|
|Retaining Wall||20 – 25 mm|
|Water Retaining Structures||20 – 30 mm|
Unit Weight of Different Materials
|Tension||47 and 60 diameter|
|1 Cent||435.60 ft2|
|1 Meter||3.2808 ft|
|1 M2||10.76 ft2|
|1 Feet||0.3048 m|
|1 KN||100 Kg|
|1 kN||1000 N|
|1 Ton 1000Kg||10,000 N = 10 kN|
|1 kG||9.81 N|
|1 Gallon||3.78 Litres|
|1 Hectare||2.471 acre|
|1 Acre||4046.82 m2|
A superstructure is an upward extension of an existing structure above a baseline. This term is applied to various kinds of physical structures such as buildings, bridges, or ships having the degree of freedom zero (in the terms of theory of machines).
What Is Plinth Level? The plinth is the part of the superstructure between the top of the tie beam at the finished ground level (the top level of the soil surrounding the structure that has been prepared and leveled before construction) and the floor level of the building( the ground floor level inside the building).
Effective Depth (d) – The effective depth (d) of a reinforced concrete floor slab is the distance from the compression face to the center of the tensile steel when an element is subjected to a bending moment.
One Way Slab
One way slab is a slab which is supported by beams on the two opposite sides to carry the load along one direction. The ratio of longer span (l) to shorter span (b) is equal or greater than 2, considered as One way slab because this slab will bend in one direction i.e in the direction along its shorter span.
Slender columns can be defined as columns with small cross sections compared to their lengths. Generally, slender columns have lower strength when compared to short columns, for a constant cross section, increasing the length causes a reduction in the strength.
Plain Cement Concrete
Plain cement concrete is the mixture of cement, fine aggregate(sand) and coarse aggregate without steel. PCC is an important component of a building which is laid on the soil surface to avoid direct contact of reinforcement of concrete with soil and water.
Fine aggregates are essentially any natural sand particles won from the land through the mining process. Fine aggregates consist of natural sand or any crushed stone particles that are ¼” or smaller. This product is often referred to as 1/4’” minus as it refers to the size, or grading, of this particular aggregate.
Coarse aggregates are a construction component made of rock quarried from ground deposits. Examples of these kinds of ground deposits include river gravel, crushed stone from rock quarries, and previously used concrete. Coarse aggregates are generally categorized as rock larger than a standard No.
Wind Loads on Building
Depending on the location, a typical “wind load” is 80 mph or 16 lb/ft2. Wind exerts three types of forces on a structure: Uplift load – Wind flow pressures that create a strong lifting effect, much like the effect on airplane wings. Wind flow under a roof pushes upward; wind flow over a roof pulls upward.
For Water Retaining Structures
The concrete structures that retaining water inside or outside is considered as water retaining structures. Water sump, water tanks, swimming pools and manholes are some of the examples for the water retaining structures in practice.
The circular columns are used when there is no need to construct walls on either side of the column. It will be aesthetically pleasing. Circular columns are also preferred when built at more traffic areas such as bridges due to their less cross-sectional area.
Thickness of Slab
Standard concrete floor slab thickness in residential construction is 4 inches. Five to six inches is recommended if the concrete will receive occasional heavy loads, such as motor homes or garbage trucks. To prepare the base, cut the ground level to the proper depth to allow for the slab thickness.
Ph Value of Water
The pH of pure water (H20) is 7 at 25oC, but when exposed to the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere this equilibrium results in a pH of approximately 5.2.
Dead Load of Structure
Dead load on a structure is the result of the weight of the permanent components such as beams, floor slabs, columns and walls. These components will produce the same constant ‘dead’ load during the lifespan of the building. Dead loads are exerted in the vertical plane.
Height of Floor
The height of each storey in a building is based on ceiling height, floor thickness, and building material – with a general average of about 14 feet.
Simply Supported Beam
The simply supported beam is one of the most simple structures. It features only two supports, one at each end. One is a pinned support and the other is a roller support. With this configuration, the beam is inhibited from any vertical movement at both ends whereas it is allowed to rotate freely.
Impermeability of Concrete
The impermeability of concrete refers to the property of concrete that cannot be pervaded by water, oil and other liquids with pressures. It plays an important role in the durability of concrete. Moreover, it also directly affects the frost-resistance and anti-corrosion of concrete.
Curing Period of RCC
For most concrete structures, the curing period at temperatures above 5º C (40º F) should be a minimum of 7 days or until 70% of the specified compressive or flexural strength is attained. The period can be reduced to 3 days if high early strength concrete is used and the temperature is above 10º C (50º F).
Minimum Sill Level Height
The 2018 IRC continues to require the bottom of openings created by operable windows to be a minimum height of 24 inches above the adjacent interior floor when they are more than 6 feet above the grade outside the window.
Specific Gravity of Cement
The specific gravity is normally defined as the ratio between the weight of a given volume of material and weight of an equal volume of water. The portland cement have a specific gravity of value around 3.15.
Specific Gravity of Brick
After multiple tests, results regarding the properties of bricks included – water absorption varies from 8.80% to 23.93%, porosity varying from 19.28% to 53.99%, specific gravity varying from 2.19 to 4.00, density varying from 1549.77 kg/m3 to 2816.6kg/m3, and crushing strength varying from 7.83 MPa to 22.10 MPa.
Specific Gravity of Sand
Specific gravity of fine aggregate (sand) is the ratio of the weight of given volume of aggregates to the weight of equal volume of water. The specific gravity of sands is considered to be around 2.65.
Slope or Pitch of the Stair
The slope or pitch of the stairs refers to the proportion among the rise and the going. It is also known as the rake of the stairs. The pitch line stands for the imaginary line along the tip of the nosing of the treads. A staircase rises up at an angle from the horizontal.
Rise in Stairs
Rise/Riser: The rise, or height of a step is measured from the top of one tread to the top of the next tread. It is not the physical height of the riser because this excludes the thickness of the tread. The number of risers, not the number of treads, is used to determine the number of steps that comprise a staircase.
Tread in Staircase
A stair tread is the horizontal portion of a set of stairs on which a person walks. The tread can be composed of wood, metal, plastic, or other materials. In residential settings, treads can be covered in carpeting. Stair treads can come in non-slip varieties, particularly in commercial or industrial locations.
Unit Weight of Steel
Unit Weight of steel is defined as the ratio of weight of Steel to volume of steel, Unit Weight of steel is around 7850kg/m3 or 78.5kN/m3
Volume of 50 Kg Cement Bag
The basic things you should know to calculate the volume of 1 bag of cement are, Density of cement = 1440 kg/ m³ 1 bag = 50 kg of cement. 1 m³ = 35.3147 cubic feet.
Concrete Basic Knowledge
Concrete is a construction material composed of cement, fine aggregates (sand) and coarse aggregates mixed with water which hardens with time. Portland cement is the commonly used type of cement for production of concrete. Concrete technology deals with study of properties of concrete and its practical applications.
The test is conducted by using Ring and Ball apparatus. A brass ring containing test sample of bitumen is suspended in liquid like water or glycerin at a given temperature. A steel ball is placed upon the bitumen sample and the liquid medium is heated at a rate of 5 C per minute.
Beams and Slabs
Precast concrete beams and slabs (or planks and joists) is a construction system comprised of precast concrete elements that span in modules between walls and are tied together with rebar that locks into a thin cast-in-place slab.
Decks of Bridge
A deck is the surface of a bridge. A structural element of its superstructure, it may be constructed of concrete, steel, open grating, or wood. On some bridges, such as a tied-arch or a cable-stayed, the deck is a primary structural element, carrying tension or compression to support the span.
Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge
As a civil engineer, you need to have the fundamentals of civil engineering to be successful. These include understanding the construction of bridges, dams, and buildings. You must also learn the basics of surveying and drafting to get involved in land surveying.
Basic Knowledge of Civil Engineering
The relevant technical skills required by civil engineers include project planning, design, construction, introduction to geology and surveying, etc. A good Civil Engineer should have a level of Mathematics and Physics that identifies and solves engineering problems.
Civil Basic Knowledge
- Government: Understanding how government works, the different branches of government, the electoral process, and the role of citizens in the political process.
- Law: Understanding the basic principles of law, including criminal and civil law, the court system, and the rights and responsibilities of citizens.
- Economics: Understanding how the economy works, including basic principles of supply and demand, the role of markets, and the role of government in regulating the economy.
Basic of Civil Engineering
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including public works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewage systems, pipelines, structural components of buildings, and railways.
Civil Engineering Basics
This area of civil engineering deals with the design, analysis, and construction of structures, such as buildings, bridges, and dams. Structural engineers use mathematics, physics, and materials science to ensure that structures are safe, stable, and durable.
Basic Information About Civil Engineering
Civil engineers conceive, design, build, supervise, operate, construct and maintain infrastructure projects and systems in the public and private sector, including roads, buildings, airports, tunnels, dams, bridges, and systems for water supply and sewage treatment.
General Knowledge About Civil Engineering
Civil engineers design significant construction projects, such as roads, airports, tunnels, dams, and bridges. They also supervise project construction and maintenance. They must possess a comprehensive skill set, from cost accounting to geology.
Structural Civil Engineering Basic Knowledge
This area of structural engineering deals with the behavior of materials under various types of loads, such as compression, tension, bending, and shear. Structural engineers use principles of mechanics of materials to design structures that can withstand the loads they will be subjected to.
Fundamentals of Civil Engineering
Mechanics is the branch of physics that deals with the behavior of physical systems under various types of loads, such as compression, tension, bending, and shear. Civil engineers use principles of mechanics to design structures and analyze their behavior under different types of loads.
Civil Construction Basics
Foundation design involves determining the type and size of foundation required to support the weight of the structure and distribute the load to the underlying soil or rock.
Basic of Civil
Civil engineers study the behavior of structures under different types of forces and loads, such as compression, tension, bending, and shear. They use this knowledge to design structures that can withstand these forces and loads.
Abbreviation of Civil Engineering
The abbreviation of the journal title “Civil engineering journal” is “Civ. Eng.
Slump Value for Raft Foundation
In general, a slump value of 100-150 mm (4-6 inches) is recommended for concrete used in raft foundations. This slump value ensures that the concrete is workable enough to be easily placed and compacted but not so fluid that it will settle and segregate. However, it is important to consult the project specifications and requirements to determine the specific slump value for the concrete to be used in a raft foundation.
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