As human beings started to expand across lands and territories, we had a structure to overcome natural obstacles and barriers. Engineers exploited their tools to create bridges, linking us between towns and changing the whole landscape.
The first method is used for bridges which are built-in low depth water. In low depth water, the foundation of the bridge is laid by filling the particular location for a temporarily period, over which piers (a type of pillar can be built). After that, the foundation of the bridge(the pillars) is constructed inside the cofferdam
How Are Bridges Constructed?
Bridge structure has undergone immense transformation since the beginning of times, such as new sturdier materials, heavy machinery, and new construction methods. The Bridge construction has experienced tremendous transformation since the beginning of occasions, such as fresh sturdier materials, heavy machinery, and new building methods.
Although construction bridges are a lot easier in modern times, bridge engineering involves precise physics, vast resources, and thorough planning before and during construction. Before bridges have been constructed, planners must test the site for elements such as the soil strength, depth, and layout of their land.
Using computer-aided design, engineers can find a picture of this bridge’s behaviour under different weights and weather requirements and determine the correct structure. When the planning is complete, workers break ground on the worksite, harnessing a variety of materials and assembling structures to keep support even under the flow of gravity.
While bridges need careful and precise work, the basic fundamentals of the bridges are strong are made to stand are simple once broken down.
Factors Associated with Building Bridges:
Before you go into how bridges have been made, there are a few things that you need to keep in mind. The bridges over water can be of both kinds – the floating ones along with the ones that are permanent.
Quite obviously, the floating ones aren’t permanent and are used only briefly.
Hence, they don’t require a base. But the permanent bridges require a foundation and therefore, there are three basic factors which will need to be considered.
- Condition of the site
- Technical ability and engineering ability of the contractor
- Technology is available from the country.
The first two variables are dependent on the engineers to measure. However, the factor of the availability of technical support depends entirely on the construction equipment that’s available.
For that matter, it has to be mentioned that there are a variety of types of construction equipment readily available on the market, Which are specially designed to support bridge structure.
Steps of constructing a bridge:
When bridges are built over large water bodies like a very deep river or even the sea, the following steps are followed.
Constructing the Foundation:
To be able to build the foundation, a bed is sunk within the waterbed from the top. It’s like a frame to the pillars that can hold the bridge in place. Following that, a service pier is made with the help of rigs.
Construction of Cofferdam:
Around the support rigs and pier, a Cofferdam is created. It’s a special type of wall that’s created surrounding the foundation. Constant pumping removes the water from inside. The area is completely dried out, and after that, the foundation is created.
Bringing everything together:
Following the construction of the foundation, the support piers are throw in the yard or cast in place. Sometimes, this process is done elsewhere, and afterwards, barges are used to bring everything together. After this is done, the gaps are joined with segments of concrete construction.
Sometimes, the sections are supported by huge suspension cables. Since they’re drawn into place, they’re stitched together. Although these are the most common methods of constructing a bridge, there are different methods as well, which can be followed to build the bridges.
Surely, the methods which can be followed for bridges from shallow water differ from those from the heavy water.
Different Types of Planning in Bridge Construction
The major steps that are involved in the planning for bridge construction are:
- Study on Need for Bridge
- Traffic Assessment
- Location study
- Detailed Project Report
- Reconnaissance Study
- Study of alternatives
- Feasible alternative study
- Preliminary Engineering
- Developing plans
- Preliminary design and costing
- Evaluation of alternatives, risk analysis, and final choice