What Is Stones?
Stones form one of the most important building materials in civil engineering. Stones are derived from rocks, which form the earth’s crust and have no definite shape or chemical combination but are mixtures of two or more minerals. In stone masonry in places where it is naturally available.
Types of Stones Used for Building Constructions
Here, the different types of stones are as follows.
Granite is one of the most commonly utilized building stones. Granite is popular because of its hardness and durability, even though it is no longer the most commonly used building stone. It’s a deep-seated igneous rock with a crystalline structure and fine to coarse grain. Because of its crushing strength, this stone is extremely precious. It can also tolerate extreme weathering.
Granite stones are usually cut into slabs and then polished. It can then be used for stone-facing slabs as well as floor slabs. The issue with granite is that stone has a low fire resistance. It is, nevertheless, ideal for use in construction since it is resistant to acidic liquids such as curds, vinegar, and lime juice. Granite is hence suitable for kitchen tabletops.
Advantages of Granite
Here, the pros of granite are as follows.
- Durability and toughness.
- Erosion resistance
- It’s possible to utilize it as a floor covering.
- This stone can survive harsh weather conditions due to its exceptional hardness.
- Granite is a beautiful stone with a sophisticated appearance.
- It has high impact resistance and is difficult to break.
Disadvantages of Granite
Here, the cons of granite are as follows.
- The price is high, as is the expense of installation.
- Granite installation takes a long time because of the behind-the-scenes stone mortaring process and time-consuming mortar adhesion.
- In situations with x-ray or gamma radiation or magnetic fields, radioactive wave radiation can grow.
Applications of Granite
The different area’s use of granite are as follows.
- Cabinets and kitchen countertops,
- Floor covering,
- Curbstones, stairs, and building external façade.
Marble is a metamorphic rock formed by excessive pressure and heat through claystone. The compression strength of this pillar is naturally tough and compact, around 70 MPA. Its gravity is approximately 2.65.
Advantages of Marble
Here, the pros of marble are as follows.
- Marble, particularly Italian marble, has a stunning aesthetic impact on interiors.
- Marble flooring is extremely long-lasting and can be used for many years. It’s a big stone that can withstand a lot of weight.
- Marble is a scratch-resistant material.
Disadvantages of Marble
Here, the cons of marble are as follows.
- Marble necessitates adequate care and upkeep.
- To make the surface robust and solid and minimize more cracks, the right resins must be applied.
- Marble flooring should be sealed properly.
Applications of Marble
The different area’s use of marble are as follows.
- Buildings, monuments, and sculptures.
Laterite is a building stone, but it must be plastered on the outside. It has a high iron oxide content and may be easily cut into blocks.
Laterite comes in soft and hard variants, and its compressive strength ranges from 1.9 to 2.3 MPA, with seasoning increasing its strength. Laterite comes in a variety of colors, including brownish, red, yellow, brown, and grey.
Advantages of Laterite
Here, the pros of laterite are as follows.
- It is resistant to fire and water, as well as being long-lasting.
- It has good insulation, but not to the same extent as a brick.
Disadvantages of Laterite
Here, the cons of laterite are as follows.
- Because it is prone to abrasion, it must be adequately strengthened.
- It has low tensile strength and is bending resistant.
Uses of Laterite
The different area’s use of laterite are as follows.
- For housing construction, laterite stone blocks are utilized as masonry material.
After high temperature and pressure, quartzite is the result of a sandstone. Its granular texture and crystalline structure are the main feature of this stone. Quartzite is broken and hard, so it’s not easy to work.
Quartzite is approximately 115 MPA in crushing strength. Quartzite in different colors is available, e.g. grey, white and yellowish. This stone is dense with a high chemical resistance that is ideal for use in a kitchen as well.
Advantages of Quartzite
Here, the pros of quartzite are as follows.
- Resists etching.
- Easy to care for.
Disadvantages of Quartzite
Here, the cons of quartzite are as follows.
- Quartzite Countertops Can Be Damaged by Sharp Objects
- Can’t Stand High Heat
- Need Sealing More Often
Applications of Quartzite
The different area’s use of quartzite are as follows.
- Use in the production of bricks and other strong materials.
- It has also becomes increasingly popular as decorating stone.
- It may be used as a feature wall, tiles or even stone covering in many forms including landscape, construction stones.
It’s a very transparent stone, Alabaster. It is a rather uncommon construction material, which is only used in construction. It is mainly utilized to create tiny aesthetic objects rather than a whole structure. It is nevertheless mixed with other elements which have contributed to its extension.
Alabaster’s main feature is its translucency. The stone should only be used indoors because of this. It cannot also be used somewhere it can be littered or shielded from it, at least. As a result, the usage of alabasters is confined to buildings.
Advantages of Alabaster
Here, the pros of alabaster are as follows.
- Looks good
- Easy to stain
- Lighting effect.
Disadvantages of Alabaster
Here, the cons of alabaster are as follows.
- Can’t be exposed to water without being treated first.
Uses of Alabaster
The different area’s use of alabaster are as follows.
Basalt is sometimes called white stones, green stones or blue basalt. It’s an ignorant rock. This stone is strong and harsh and nice as well as nasty. This hardness makes it difficult for any purpose to use rock as readily.
Basalt has a strong compressive strength between 150 and 190 MPA. The structure of the stone is medium to thin. It is also small with many color options. Basalt stones may be found in black to dark grey, an element which makes house design more popular.
Advantages of Basalt
Here, the pros of basalt are as follows.
- Rough and tough
- Good insulation and sound absorption.
- Heat preservation
- Environmental friendly
Disadvantages of Basalt
Here, the cons of basalt are as follows.
- Not easily workable
Applications of Basalt
The different area’s use of basalt are as follows.
- Railway ballast
- Aggregate for concrete
- Road metals
- Dams and river walls
limestone is a sedimentary rock produced when particles are weathered. Mostly calcium carbonate is used in this pier. Compared to others in this post, this makes it a soft rock, making it easy to work for diverse buildings.
The compressive power of the stone is around 55 MPA. It is typically combined along with magnesia with minor quantities of alumina and silica. Magnesia becomes magnesian when 10 percent or above. If the magnesia is over 45%, calcareous stone is referred to be dolomites.
Advantages of Limestone
Here, the pros of limestone are as follows.
- Not hard
- High traffic floors
- Medium durability
Disadvantages of Limestone
Here, the cons of limestone are as follows.
- Easily workable
- Needs sealing
- Can stain and look bad.
Applications of Limestone
The different area’s use of limestone are as follows.
- Manufacturing cement and lime
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed of many minerals, such as feldspar, quartz, silica, and many more. The stone is provided in many colors including brown, grey, white, yellow, red, and dark grey. Its strength is about 65 MPA in compression.
The rock’s hardness depends on the amount of minerals it contains. Some sandstones are therefore more difficult than others. This is why sandstone is easy to work with, making it perfect for different applications.
Advantages of Sandstone
Here, the pros of sandstone are as follows.
- Easy cut in blocks
- Allows percolation through them
- Holds water well
Disadvantages of Sandstone
Here, the cons of sandstone are as follows.
- Weak in abrasion
Applications of Sandstone
The different area’s use of sandstone are as follows.
- Facing works
- Bridge piers
- River walls
Numerous historic buildings like as the Colosseum have been constructed here. Many cave groups have travertine stones in China. Travertine is commonly found in cold and hot mineral springs as sedimentary stone. The stone is natural in calcareous caves as well. It is technically a kind of calcite produced following the dissolving of deposits by cycles of water leaving calcite and Aragonite.
Nevertheless, in the realm of building, architecture and home design, travertine and claystone are distinct stones. The stone has a marble and fibrous feel. It’s beautiful. The hues are beautiful earth tones. Compared to other natural stones, it is easy to preserve.
Advantages of Travertine
Here, the pros of travertine are as follows.
- Looks great
- Easy to maintain
- Easy to quarry
Disadvantages of Travertine
Here, the cons of travertine are as follows.
- Needs sealing
- Cold underfeed
- Highly porous
Applications of Travertine
The different area’s use of travertine are as follows.
- Ground floor
- Main pillars
- External wall
Slate is a rock created through a metamorphic process in which the shale is subjected to low heat and pressure. It consists mostly of minerals from mica, clay and quartz. The slate is fragile and difficult with a fine-grained, foliated structure.
This stone is mainly in black, but can also be in greenish-gray, grey or purplish grey. Slate may readily be divided into slabs, simply by following the inherent planes of the rock. Its strength is about 75-210 MPA for compression.
Advantages of Slate
Here, the pros of slate are as follows.
- Easily split into thin slabs
- Resistant to breaks
Disadvantages of Slate
Here, the cons of slate are as follows.
- Cold to touch
- Can sustain moisture damage
Applications of Slate
The different area’s use of slate are as follows.
Onyx is a marble, but calcite most of the time. It’s significantly softer compared to granite. It may also be grated or stained. Onyx is transparent compared to marbles. Thereby, it is commonly utilized coupled with lights in building to display its beauty.
This stone with strong veining is a high variable. Therefore, two onyx stones that appear identical will never be found. In house and interior design, onyx makes this quality an extremely in demand pillar. It is also considerably more delicate than other stones, on the other hand.
Advantages of ONYX
Here, the pros of ONYX are as follows.
- Looks good
- Add values to home
- Rare stone
Disadvantages of ONYX
Here, the cons of ONYX are as follows.
- Needs fiberglass to reinforce
- Difficult to use in large projects
- Soft stone
- High maintenance
Applications of ONYX
The different area’s use of ONYX are as follows.
- Wall panels
- Sink base.