Introduction of Columns
The whole structure of a building is comprised of different types of components. The column is one of the most important parts of the Framed Structure. Columns are designed to carry the axial loads in compression.
The Columns are used all over the world for the decorative as well as structural purpose. The main function of the columns is to transmit the load of the superstructure to the underground strata.
In this article, you will get to know what are columns, different shapes of columns, types of RCC columns and difference between column and pillar.
What Are Columns?
The effective depth of the column exceeds 3 times the lateral dimension. Generally, column carries the axial loads in the compression.
Biaxial column is subjected to the axial compressive force are undergoes to Moments on one or both axes.
Factors on which strength of the column depends
- The shape of the column
- Size of the column
- Length of the column
- Cross-section of the column
Types of Columns in Architecture
There are five major order of architectural columns used in the construction are as follows
Different Types of Rcc Columns
- Classification of the column based on its cross-section
- Classification of the column based on its loading
- Classification of columns based on its length and behaviour
- Classification of columns on the basis of its longitudinal reinforcement
The brief description of the classification of columns given as follows
1. Classification of the Column on the Basis of Its Cross-Section
There are different types of shapes of columns which are used in the construction as per the requirement or design.
1.1. Square Column or Rectangular Column
Square columns or rectangular columns are commonly used in the construction of buildings. The construction of the rectangular or square columns is easier and less costly to cast.
1.2. Circular Column
Circular columns are specially design and widely used in the filing and elevation of the structures. Circular columns give the good aesthetical appearance to the structure. Circular columns are commonly used in the construction of bridge pillars.
T-column is used as per the design requirements of the structure.
The L-columns is not commonly used in the structure. It is used at the corner of the frame structure.
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2. Classification of the Column on the Basis of Its Loading
2.1. Axially Loaded Column
Axially loaded columns are subjected to the loading which is acting along the longitudinal axis or centroid of the column section.
2.2. Axially Loaded and Uniaxial Bending Column
The axially loaded and uniaxial bending column subject to the loads which do not act on the longitudinal axis of the column section.
2.3. Axially Loaded and Biaxial Bending Column
Biaxial bending of columns occurs when the loading causes binding on the principal Axis simultaneously.
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3. Classification of the Column on the Basis of Its Length and Behaviour
3.1. Short Column
The short column is defined as the column whose ratio of the least lateral dimension of the column is less than 12, then it is known as a short column.
3.2. Long Column
Long column is defined as the column whose ratio of the least lateral dimension of the column is more than 12,then it is known as Long column.
4. Classification of Column on the Basis of Its Longitudinal Reinforcemen
4.1. Tied Column
A tied column is a column in which the longitudinal reinforcement bars are tied together with the separate small diameter transverse ties which are spaced at some interval along the column height.
4.2. Spiral Column
Spiral columns are the columns in which the longitudinal bars are arranged in the circular shape. There is a total of 6 number of bars are used for the longitudinal reinforcement.
4.3. Composite Column
A composite column is a column which is made of structural Steel shape or pipe which are surrounded by or filled by the concrete with or without longitudinal reinforcement.
Round Column Vs Square Column
The Round column and square column are commonly used column shapes in the construction. The difference between the Round column and square are as follows
|Round columns are symmetric about centroidal Axis.||Square columns have four-axis of symmetry.|
|The minimum number of bars which are required in the round columns are 6.||The minimum number of bars which are required in the square columns are 4.|
|A special type of formwork is required for the construction of Round column.||Simple formwork is required for the Construction of square column.|
|The Construction of the round column is expensive as compared to the square column.||The Construction of square column is economical as compared to the round column.|
|There are no weak points in the round column due to its circular shape.||The square column has four weak points due to the corner edges.|
|Round columns are strong in compression so they can carry more load.||Square columns can carry less load as compared to round columns.|
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Pillars Vs Columns
Pillar is a vertical structure which is designed to bear the weight of the building’s roof. Pillar is also widely used as a decorative element in the Buildings.
The column is a structural element which transmits the total load of the structure to the footing and the soil.
Difference Between Pillars and Columns
|Column is a structural member which transmit the total load of the superstructure to the underground Strata.||Pillar is the Structural vertical element which is designed to bear the weight of building roof.|
|Columns are used to support the load-bearing walls||Pillars are used for the decorative purposes.|
|In the construction of columns, steel is used.||Steel is not used in the construction of pillars.|
|All columns are not the pillars||All pillars are the columns|
|Columns are use to support the load of the component members such as beam and slab.||Pillar can be stand alone or support the roof of the Buildings.|