What Is Staircase?
The staircase consists of a set of the number of stairs that provides traveling from one floor to another floor.
Before the construction of the staircase, it is important to make a proper plan of a staircase and a Staircase Design Calculation.
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Location of Staircase
- In the case of the Residential structures, the staircase should be located at the center of the building for easy access to all the rooms of the building.
- In case of the public buildings such as schools and hospitals, the staircase should be preferably located at the entrance of the building so that it can be easily accessible.
- In the High rise buildings, there should be more than one staircase should be provided for the easy movement of the occupants.
- The staircase should be avoided to locate around or adjacent to the elevator shafts without providing solid walls between them.
Technical Terms in Staircase
Following are some of the technical terms in the staircase
- Step: A Step is a combination of a staircase tread and a staircase riser. A stair is composed of a set of steps that are used for upward and downward movement.
- Riser: The riser, or riser in staircase, is a vertical component of the stair that provides support to the tread.
- Tread: The Tread, or tread in staircase, is an upper flat surface or a horizontal portion of a step on which the footrest.
- Flight: It is a series of steps without an intermediate platform.
- Landing: It is a Flat horizontal platform at the bottom or top of a flight between the floors. It is used to change the direction.
- Pitch or slope: It is an angle which the line of the nosing of the stair makes with the floor is known as pitch or slope.
- Newel Post: It is a principal post that is used to support the handrail, placed at the ends of flights to connect the ends of strings and handrail.
- Hand Rail: It is a moulded member of wood or metal, which is provided to afford assistance and a safeguard to a person while going over a staircase.
- Baluster: It is a vertical member which is made from wood or metal that is used to support the handrails.
- Balustrade: It is a combined framework of handrail and balusters which is used to protect the users of the stairs.
- Head Room: It is a clear vertical distance between the tread and overhead structure or ceiling.
- Going: It is defined as the distance between two successive riser faces.
- Nosing: It is a projecting edge of the tread.
- Line of Nosing: It is an imaginary line that is parallel to the string and tangentially to the nosing.
- Strings: These are the sloping members that are used to supports the steps in a stair.
- Scotia: It is a moulding that is provided under the nosing to improve the elevation of the step and to provide strength to the nosing.
- Waist: It is a thickness of the R.C.C structural slab.
- Run: It is the total length of stairs in a horizontal plane, also including the landing.
- Header: It is a horizontal structural member that is used to support the stair strings or landings.
- Soffit: The underside of a stair is known as the Soffit.
- Winders: It is a step that has a tapered shape, which is radiated from a point that is situated at the center of a newel.
- Kite Steps: When there is a change in a direction of the staircase, the steps are used to turn at a 90-degree corner then the middle step is known as the Kite Step. The kite step is a step that is located in between the two winders at a 90-degree corner.
Important Point to Consider Design of Staircase Calculation & Tread and Riser Calculation
- The length of tread in the staircase should be between 250 mm to 300 mm in length.
- The maximum height of the riser that is provided in the staircase should be between 150 mm to 200 mm.
- The size of tread and riser depends on the type of building, whether it is a residential or public building.
- The height of the handrail provided in the staircase should be of minimum 1m.
- The Landing width should be of minimum 1000 mm for effective movement through the staircase.
- The Vertical space of a minimumof 2 m should be provided above any staircase or headroom.
- The width of the stair should not be less than 850 mm and the standard width of the stair is between 1m to1.6m.
- In public buildings such as Malls, hospitals, and cinemas where there is a large crowd the larger width is provided for efficient movement.
General Guidelines for Design of Staircase Calculation
After that, it is necessary to provide a landing whose width should be at least the dimensions of three treads.
So, it is important to calculate and design the number of risers and treads before constructing the staircase.
Following is a basic formula that you can use to calculate the number of risers and number of treads
Number of Risers = Height of Staircase/ Height of one number of Riser
Number of Treads = Number of risers – 1
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How to Calculate Riser and Tread Dimensions?
Let’s take an example, consider the vertical clear height of the floor is 3m (3000mm).
First upon the number of treads and risers are calculated.
- Calculation of Number of riser stairs
The height of the Riser that is provided in the construction of the staircase is 160 mm.
- Number of Risers = ( Height of floor / Height of Riser)
- Number of Risers = (3000/160) = 18.75 nos….say 19 nos
Note:- The result should be always rounded up.
2. Calculation of number of Treads
The width of the tread that is provided in the staircase is 280 mm.
- Number of Treads = Number of Risers – 1
- Number of Treads = 19 -1
- Number of Treads = 18 nos
Final Data of the design of the Staircase are as follows
- Size of Riser = 160 mm
- size of Tread = 280 mm
- Number of Risers = 19 nos
Number of Treads = 18 nos