Important Point

## Properties of Concrete

There Have Many Properties of Concrete That’s Are Below-

- Grades of Concrete (M20, M25, M30, etc.)
- Compressive Strength of Concrete.
- Characteristic Strength of Concrete.
- Tensile Strength of Concrete.
- Durability of Concrete.
- Creep of Concrete.
- Shrinkage of Concrete.
- Unit Weight of Concrete.
- Modular Ratio of Concrete.
- Poisson’s Ratio of Concrete.

### 1. What Is the Grade of Concrete

By strength of the concrete and the composition, the grades of concrete are defining. For the initial construction, the minimum strength of concrete should have followed at 28 days. In the measurement MPa, the grade of concrete is expressed. Where the M stands for mix and the MPa expressed the overall strength of the concrete.

For example for the M20 grade of concrete, Where the M stands for mix and 20 means the maximum compressive strength achieves by the concrete 20N/mm2 at 28 days.

The size of the cube upon which the compressive strength test is done is 150 X 150 X 150 mm.

**Different Types Grade of Concrete Is Below**

Group | Designation0n |
Characteristic Compressive Strength Fck at 28 Days |

Ordinary Concrete |
M10 M15 M20 |
10 15 20 |

Standard Concrete |
M25 M30 M35 M40 M45 M50 M55 |
25 30 35 40 45 50 55 |

High Strength Concrete |
M60 M65 M70 M75 M80 |
60 65 70 75 80 |

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### 2. The Compressive Strength of Concrete

A quality that varies considerably for the same concrete mix Like a load, the strength of the concrete is also. A single representative value, Therefore, known as characteristic strength is used.

### 3. Characteristic Strength of Concrete

The characteristic strength of concrete is the compressive strength in the cube test of concrete. In technical word, there is only 5% failure chance of concrete in it’s characteristic concrete. Naturally in M25 grade concrete has 23 Mpa characteristic strength which failure occurs in only 5% and survival chance in 95%.

By formula

The target mean strength (Fcm) = fck+(k x s)

- Where,
- Fck=characteristic strength
- K=1.65 (constant)
- S=standard deviation of concrete cube

### 4. Tensile Strength of Concrete

The tensile strength of concrete, one of the basic and important properties is which greatly affect the extent and size of cracking in structures. The concrete is very weak due to its brittle nature in tension. Hence the direct tension is not expected to resist.

When tensile forces exceed their tensile strength the concrete develops cracks. Therefore, the tensile strength of concrete to determine and it is necessary to determine the load at which the concrete members may crack.

Furthermore, to determine the tensile strength of splitting tensile strength test on the concrete cylinder is a method concrete.

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### 5. The Durability of Concrete

To resist its disintegration and decay the durability of concrete is its ability. Influencing the durability of concrete is one of the chief characteristics. Its permeability to other potential and increase of water and deleterious materials.

By having adequate cement, the desired low permeability in concrete is achieved, by ensuring full compaction of concrete and by adequate curing sufficient low water/cement ratio.

### 6. Creep of Concrete

Under sustained load, creep is defined as tic deformation. On the duration of sustained loading, the creep strain depends primarily. According to the code, 1.6 at 28 days of loading the value of the ultimate creep coefficient is taken.

### 7. Shrinkage of Concrete

During the process of drying and hardening, the property of diminishing me is termed Shrinkage. The duration of exposure depends mainly. If this strain is prevented, hence concrete develops cracks and produces tensile stress in the concrete.

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### 8. Unit Weight of Concrete

On the percentage of reinforcement, the unit weight of concrete depends, type of aggregate, varies from 23 to 26 kN/m^{2 }the number of voids. The unit weight of reinforced concrete and plain concrete as specified by IS:456 are 24 and 25 KN/m^{3 }

### 9. Modular Ratio of Concrete

The short-term modular ratio is the modulus of elasticity to the modulus of elasticity of steel of concrete. The effects of creep and shrinkage are taking into account partially IS code gives the following expression for the long-term modular ratio.

Where, f_{cbc} = permissible compressive stress due to bending in concrete in N/mm^{2}

Long term modular ratio (m) = 280/ (3f_{cbc}).

### 10. Poisson’s Ratio of Concrete

For high-strength concrete Poisson’s ratio varies between 0.1 and 0.2 for weak mixes. For strength design, It is normally taken as 0.15 and 0.2 for serviceability criteria.

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### Concrete

In its simplest form, concrete is a mixture of paste and aggregates, or rocks. The paste, composed of portland cement and water, coats the surface of the fine (small) and coarse (larger) aggregates.

### What is Properties of Concrete?

Concrete has **strength, durability, versatility, and economy**. It can be placed or molded into virtually any shape and reproduce any surface texture.

### Properties of Concrete

**Mechanical strength,**in particular compressive strength. The strength of normal concrete varies between 25 and 40 MPa. Above 50 MPa, the term High-Performance Concrete is used (50 MPa corresponds to a force of 50 tonnes acting on a square with sides of ten centimeters).**Durability.**Concrete is extremely resistant to the physico-chemical attack emanating from the environment (frost, rain atmospheric pollution, etc.) It is particularly well-suited for structures exposed to demanding and extreme conditions.**Porosity and density.**These properties are responsible for the first two. The denser (or the less porous) the concrete the better its performance and the greater its durability. The density of concrete is increased by optimizing the dimensions and packing of the aggregate and reducing the water content.

### Characteristics of Concrete

Strengths of concrete are of the following types:

- Compressive Strength.
- Tensile Strength.
- Flexural Strength.

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