What is Construction Equipment?
Construction tasks, earthwork operations are easily executed with the help of construction equipment. Construction machinery is used in construction projects and Construction equipment are used in building construction.
There are huge contributions of this equipment to the Economy, Quality, Safety, Speed, and Timely completion of the Project if they are properly used by experienced workers.
As there are several types of equipment available so every type of construction equipment required for the Project, can not be own by any contractor, In the construction of any project, the basic operations are excavation, digging of large quantities of earth, moving them to long distances, placement, compacting, levelling, dozing, grading, hauling, etc.
Types of Construction Equipment
There is a lot of construction equipment available. They are categorized as below
- Earth Moving Equipment
- Construction Vehicles
- Material Handling Equipment
- Other Construction Equipment
1. Earth Moving Equipment
Various excavation tasks such as digging, moving the earth are carried out by using earth moving equipment. Some of them are
- Motor Scrapers
- Crawler Loaders
The backhoe has another name, which is a rear actor and it is a type of excavating equipment or digger. It has a two-part articulated arm, and at the end of it, there is a digging bucket. It is mounted on the back of a tractor or front loader and thus the latter form a “backhoe loader”
Loaders are used to load materials. Along with loading the materials, loaders are also used to move the construction materials present at the site. Materials like gravel, rocks, dirt, snow, asphalt, demolition debris, recycled materials, etc. are loaded and moved by loaders.
There may be wheeled or tracked loaders. They help in the transfer of material from stockpiles on the ground to trucks and transport them around the construction site. There are different types of loaders available such as scoop loaders, skid steer loaders, front loaders, bucket loaders, payloaders etc.
Bulldozer is one of the most common, most widely known, and the most reliable type of construction vehicle, used in construction. and is also the strongest among all other types. A huge blade fitted at the front of a tractor is a bulldozer.
Trencher used to dig trenches, especially for laying pipes or electrical cables, for installing drainage. Trenchers may range in size from walk-behind models to attachments.
1.6 Motor Scrapers
1.7 Crawler Loaders
They are heavy-duty earth-moving machines that give the big power of a dozer and the heavy loading and lifting power.
2. Construction Vehicles
Here, the construction vehicles two different types are as follows.
Tippers are used for taking dumps for construction and are also known as dumper trucks or tipper trucks. They are also used for carrying soil, aggregate, crushed rock, and other bulk materials to and from construction sites.
3. Material Handling Equipment
Here, the material handling equipment four different types are as follows.
A crane can be moved horizontally. The main components of the brain are chains, sheaves, wire ropes etc and with the help of them, a crane can lift the materials and also can lower them. Heavy materials are lifted and transported to other places with the help of the cranes.
A forklift is used while moving and lifting the materials at very short distances. Forklifts are an indispensable vehicle at all construction sites as they help in lifting and transporting such objects that are not be moved by humans
While lifting or lowering a load using a drum around which rope or chain wraps, a hoist is used. A hoist can be operated manually or electrically and this is their biggest advantage. As for lifting medium, chain fiber etc. are used.
4. Construction Equipment
Here, the construction equipment four different types are as follows.
- Tunneling and Handling Equipment
- Concrete Mixers
- Road Rollers
- Hot Mix Plants
- Slurry Seal Machines
4.1 Tunneling and Handling Equipment
To remove muck and spoil from tunneling excavation sites, tunneling equipment is most efficient and reliable and provides lower risk. For the transporting of materials from the tunnel excavation site to the surface, they are used.
4.2. Concrete Mixers
A concrete mixer is used to form concrete by making a homogeneous combination of cement, sand, aggregate, and water. In a mixer truck, there is a revolving drum mounted on it that mixes all components.
A concrete mixture truck is used When smaller quantities of cement are needed at a construction site. With the help of this Concrete mixture truck, Workers get enough time to use the concrete before it gets hard.
4.2. Road Rollers
4.4. Hot Mix Plants
For a homogeneous mixture it is required to mix the dry warm aggregate, and Asphalt at the required temperature, a hot mix plant is used there. They are observed to be used mainly in the construction of highways, city roads etc.
4.5. Slurry Seal Machines
Slurry seals solve various problems that are created while constructing airfields, streets, parking lots etc. Aggregate, asphalt emulsion, and fillers are the main materials to form a slurry. These materials are mixed according to the mixed design formula.
Machines Used in Construction
For construction purposes, many machines are used, some of them are-
- Bulldozers: Bulldozer is one of the most common, most widely known, and the most reliable type of construction vehicle, used in construction. and is also the strongest among all other types. A huge blade fitted at the front of a tractor is a bulldozer which is very a powerful machine for transporting huge amounts of soil sand etc. They can easily grip the ground and can be easily mobilized on patchy terrain.
- Dumpers: A dumper is designed to carry bulk material on building sites. Dumpers are distinguished from dump trucks as there is a cab in dump trucks in front of the load
- Tippers: Tippers are used for taking dumps for construction and are also known as dumper trucks or tipper trucks. They are also used for carrying soil, aggregate, crushed rock, and other bulk materials to and from construction sites.
- Concrete Mixers: A concrete mixer is used to form concrete by making a homogeneous combination of cement, sand, aggregate, and water. In a mixer truck, there is a revolving drum mounted on it that mixes all components.
What Is a Heavy Equipment in Construction?
These machines include bulldozers, backhoes, graders, trench diggers, excavators, loaders, rollers, pumps, tractors, and scrapers, among others. Operating Engineers control equipment by moving levers, pushing foot pedals, operating switches, and moving joysticks.
Heavy Equipment Engineering
Heavy equipment operator (operating engineer) whether working as heavy equipment operators, mechanics, or surveyors, operating engineers can be found on any project using construction equipment. Mechanics repair and maintain the equipment used on the job, requiring a thorough knowledge of many types of equipment
Heavy Equipment Companies
Many companies make heavy equipment. some of them are listed below-
- Hitachi Construction Machinery
- Volvo Construction Equipment
- Doosan Infracore
- John Deere.
Heavy Construction Equipment
Some of the heavy construction equipment are
- Road Rollers: Road rollers are a very essential vehicles while constructing and repairing roads. It is a compactor-type machine that is used to compact soil, gravel, concrete, etc.
- Conveyors: One of the most commonly used vehicles to move materials from one site to another is a conveyor. While transporting heavy or bulky materials, conveyors are useful.
- Excavators: At every construction site, a primary activity that takes place is excavation. Heavy excavation equipment is needed while excavating the earth as it is of a very large scale. To excavate, excavators are used, which are one of the most valuable construction vehicles.
Heavy equipment, also called heavy-duty vehicles, are designed for executing construction tasks. There is five important equipment system comprising heavy equipment: traction, control, implementation, structure, power train, and information.
Some commonly used heavy equipment are noted below.
- Asphalt Paver
- Cold Planer
- Pavement Milling
- Slipform Paver
- Vibratory Compactor
- Tunnel Boring Machine
- Pneumatic Tire Compactor
- Hydromantic Tool
- Ballast Tamper
- Drilling Machine
- Pile Driver
- Amphibious excavator
- Compact excavator
- Dragline excavator
- Bucket-wheel excavator.
- Power shovel
- Steam shovel
- Backhoe loader, Backhoe
- Fresno scraper
- Wheel tractor-scraper.
- Construction & mining tractor
- Construction & mining trucks
- Articulated Haulier
- Articulated Truck
- Wheel dozers – soil compactors
- Soil stabilizer
- Skip loader (Skippy)
- Wheel loader
- Track loader